Dr. Toby Maduot Parek (1936-May 24, 2012), was the chairman of the Sudan African National Union (SANU), a member of parliament in the government of southern Sudan (GOSS) Legislative Assembly, and a member of the Sudanese Group for Human Rights (SGHR).
Toby Maduot was born in Rualbet in Tonj North County in 1936, and after early studies in his native Tonj and secondary school at Ahfad in Omdurman, he completed his medical training at Charles University in Czechoslovakia. Following his return from Eastern Europe in 1965, he worked as a medical doctor in central Sudan and Khartoum, and then joined politics as a SANU member under the leadership of late William Deng Nhial Mabuoch. He held posts as a Minister at the Presidency in Khartoum in 1969, and then as the first Southern Commissioner of Bahr El-ghazal in 1971. After the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972, he was elected to the People’s Assembly and named the first Minister of Health of the Southern Regional Government. He subsequently held the Information and Housing portfolios under the then High Executive Council for Southern Sudan. However, his greatest contribution was in his field as a Medical Doctor who selflessly served in the all corners of Sudan, and especially during the years of the second civil war when his clinic in El Haj Yousif in Khartoum was a sanctuary and refuge for thousands of displaced South Sudanese and other marginalized Sudanese living in the shantytowns of Khartoum.
Dr. Maduot was a political philosopher and played an instrumental role in shaping the ideology of SANU which later gave birth to Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement. Working closely with his brother-in-law William Deng Nhial, one of Sudan's most important nationalist leaders in post-independence Sudan, he achieved recognition by the national government as they represented the first southern Sudanese political party. After the 1969 October Revolution, Dr. Maduot served in the cabinet and then was named Commissioner for Bahr al-Ghazal province in 1971.
After the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement of 1972, in which he played a key role, Dr. Maduot became a member of the Southern Region High Executive Council (HEC) as the Minister of Health in the first regional cabinet under Abel Alier, and was elected to the Regional Peoples Assembly. He was subsequently appointed by President Jaafar Nimeiri as the first South Sudanese Commissioner of Bahr elGhazal Region in 1971, and then held several cabinet posts in the HEC under both Abel Alier and Joseph Lagu. Dr. Maduot is a principled human rights activist, secularist thinker, and strong opponent of the war, enslavement, and other disasters that the government has been escalating against the People of Sudan. During the rise of the SPLM/A, Dr. Maduot was one of the few Southern leaders who remained in Khartoum and fought politically as he always did. He operated a small Medical Clinic in one of the most impoverished suburbs of Khartoum in Elhaj Yousif, and devoted himself to fighting for human rights and an end to the war in the South of the country from which most of his patients came. The Sudan government arrested Dr. Maduot continuously along with journalist Alfred Taban, lawyer Mustafa Abdel-Gadir, lawyer Ali Al-Sayed, and many other democratic leaders or professionals who honestly and publicly criticized the regime's repression, war mongering, and non-democracy.
Maduot lived under intensive security surveillance before the peace agreement of 2005. He was repeatedly detained by the regime's security team for years in Khartoum. He was constantly harassed and interrogated but consistently refused to comply with the security team's unlawful procedure, which flagrantly violated international human rights law. On June 28, 2002 SHRO-Cairo issued a follow-up report addressed to the High Commissioner of Human Rights (Geneva), the African Commission on Human Rights (Banjul), and the other human rights organizations. Human rights worldwide call for the release of Dr. Toby Maduot after the government’s extension of his unlawful incarceration irrespective of his urgent need to medical attention at the time. Human rights and others became very involve and Dr. Toby became a known and respected figure as he peacefully shed light on the suffering of his people in Sudan. His Humanitarianism and commitment to democracy and human rights will remain his shining legacy for years to come. Late Dr. Toby Maduot was a husband to Mrs. Carmen Kwei Mawien, Late Mrs. Victoria Yar Arol (a pioneering politician in her own right), and Mrs. Sarah Paul Lako. 18 children and 12 grandchildren survive him. His body rests in Tonj, South Sudan.
The Dinka tribe are a Nilotic ethnic group native to South Sudan with a sizable diaspora population abroad. The Dinka mostly live along the Nile, from Bor to Renk, in the region of Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile, and the Abyei Area of the Ngok Dinka in South Sudan.
The Addis Ababa Agreement, also known as the Addis Ababa Accord, was a set of compromises within a 1972 treaty that ended the First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972) fighting in Sudan. The Addis Ababa accords were incorporated in the Constitution of Sudan.
Salva Kiir Mayardit, also known as Salva Kiir, is a South Sudanese politician who has been the President of South Sudan since its independence on 9 July 2011. Prior to independence, he was the President of the Government of Southern Sudan, as well as First Vice President of Sudan, from 2005 to 2011. He was named Commander-in-Chief of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in 2005, following the death of John Garang.
Tonj, located in Warrap State, Bahr el Ghazal in South Sudan, is a historically rich and unique town. It is known by various names, including Kalkuel, Genanyuon, Jurkatac, Madiera, BaburWasaka, Genngeu, and Tonjdit. The town is bordered by Rumbek, Cueibet, Yambio, Bentiu, and Gokrial.
Abel Alier Kwai is a South Sudanese politician and judge who served as Vice President of Sudan between 1971 and 1982 and as President of the High Executive Council of the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region between 1972 and 1978. After Sudan gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1956, Southern Sudan was not left as an independent state. This led to a deadly war a year before the independence. A party in the war was Anyanya 1 Under Joseph Lagu. Abel Alier was a politician who managed to complete his college education among many Southern Sudanese. He is an internationally respected judge, human-rights lawyer and activist on behalf of Christians in the Sudan. Former Vice President of Sudan (1971–1982), he served as the first president of the High Executive Council of Southern Sudan. He sits on the Permanent Court of International Arbitration in The Hague and is recognized as Sudan's most prominent Christian lawyer. His latest book is Southern Sudan: Too Many Agreements Dishonoured.
Lieutenant General Nhial Deng Nhial is a South Sudanese politician and a member of the ruling Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM). He was Minister of Foreign Affairs 2011 to 2013 and 2018 to 2019 after having served as the caretaker Minister of Defense since 10 July 2011. Prior to that he served as the pre-independence South Sudanese Minister of SPLA and Veteran Affairs, from 22 December 2008 until 9 July 2011.
The Sudan African National Union is a political party formed in 1963 by Saturnino Ohure and William Deng Nhial in Uganda. In the late 1960s, the party contested elections in Sudan seeking autonomy for South Sudan within a federal structure. The exile branch of the party meanwhile supported full independence. A party with this name was represented in the Southern Sudan legislature in 2008.
The Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was an autonomous region that existed in Southern Sudan between 1972 and 1983. It was established on 28 February 1972 by the Addis Ababa Agreement which ended the First Sudanese Civil War. The region was abolished on 5 June 1983 by the administration of Sudanese President Gaafar Nimeiry. Revocation of southern autonomy was one of the causes of the Second Sudanese Civil War which would continue until January 2005, when southern autonomy was restored; the region became the independent Republic of South Sudan in 2011.
Jimmy Lemi Milla was a Sudanese politician, and Cabinet member in Southern Sudan. He was a Pojulu.
Joseph Ukel Abango, commonly known as Joseph Ukel, is a veteran-politician of what is now South Sudan and an educationalist by profession.
Kerubino Kuanyin Bol was one of the founders of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and one of the leaders of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005). He was said to have fired the first shot in that conflict, which flared up when the Khartoum government of Sudan imposed Islamic law, or Sharia, across the whole country, including the southern region which in 2011 became the Republic of South Sudan. The people in this region mainly follow the Christianity and/or a traditional animist religion.
William Deng Nhial was the political leader of the Sudan African National Union, SANU, from 1962 to 1968. He was elected unopposed. He was one of founders of the Anya Nya Military Wing of the Liberation of Southern Sudan, fighting for the independence of Southern Sudan. He was ambushed and killed by Sudan's army on 9 May 1968 at Cueibet, on his way from Rumbek to Tonj. The Sudan government denied having authorised the assassination. Although no investigation was conducted, eyewitnesses at Cueibet village and SANU investigation committee confirmed the assassins to be the Sudan army.
Ezboni Mondiri Gwanza was a politician in Southern Sudan. He was one of the founders of the Southern Sudan Federal Party (SSFP) in 1957, which competed in the Sudanese parliamentary election in 1958. Later he was active in secessionist movements.
Aggrey Jaden Ladu was a South Sudanese politician,
Kawac Makuei Mayar Kawac is a politician from South Sudan who was a leader in the Anyanya I independence movement during the First Sudanese Civil War (1955-1972) and in the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005).
Dr. Lawrence Lual Lual Akuei was a Sudanese politician born in Mathiang-Agor village of Ajak area into a family of spiritual leader Lual Akuei Lual of Pakuein Paan-Deng sub-clan of Agaal-Liil section.
The Luwo are a Nilotic ethnic group that live in the western parts of South Sudan. They are part of a larger group of ethno-linguistically related Luo peoples of East Africa. They speak the Jur language which is a Northern Luo language.
Gordon Muortat Mayen Maborjok (1922–2008) was a South Sudanese veteran politician and an advocate for the rights and freedom of the South Sudanese people. He was the President of the Nile Provisional Government (NPG) which led Anyanya I; Southern Sudan's first armed resistance to Khartoum which started in 1955. Muortat also served as Vice-President of the Southern Front (SF) and Foreign Minister in the Southern Sudan Provisional Government (SSPG).
Tonj State was a state in South Sudan that existed between 2 October 2015 and 22 February 2020. It was located in the Bahr el Ghazal region and it bordered Wau to the west, Gbudwe to the southwest, Gogrial to the northwest, Northern Liech to the northeast, Gok and Southern Liech to the east, and Western Lakes to the south and east.
Victoria Yar Arol was a Sudanese politician. The first woman from Southern Sudan to study at the University of Khartoum she was later a politician with seats on the regional assembly for Bahr el Ghazal Province and the National Peoples Assembly of Sudan.