Toi is an imperative, type-sensitive language that provides the basic functionality of a programming language. The language was designed and developed from the ground-up by Paul Longtine.Written in C, Toi was created with the intent to be an educational experience and serves as a learning tool (or toy, hence the name) for those looking to familiarize themselves with the inner-workings of a programming language.
0 VOID - Null, no data 1 ADDR - Address type (bytecode) 2 TYPE - A `type` type 3 PLIST - Parameter list 4 FUNC - Function 5 OBJBLDR - Object builder 6 OBJECT - Object/Class 7 G_PTR - Generic pointer 8 G_INT - Generic integer 9 G_FLOAT - Generic double 10 G_CHAR - Generic character 11 G_STR - Generic string 12 S_ARRAY - Static array 13 D_ARRAY - Dynamic array 14 H_TABLE - Hashtable 15 G_FIFO - Stack
The runtime context keeps track of an individual threads metadata, such as:
This context gives definition to an 'environment' where code is executed.
A key part to any operational computer language is the notion of a 'Namespace'. This notion of a 'Namespace' refers to the ability to declare a name, along with needed metadata, and call upon the same name to retrieve the values associated with that name.
In this definition, the namespace will provide the following key mechanisms:
The scope argument is a single byte, where the format is as follows:
Namespace|Scope 0000000 |0
Scopes are handled by referencing to either the Global Scope or the Local Scope. The Local Scope is denoted by '0' in the scope argument when referring to names, and this scope is initialized when evaluating any new block of code. When a different block of code is called, a new scope is added as a new Namespace level. Namespace levels act as context switches within function contexts. For example, the local namespace must be 'returned to' if that local namespace context needs to be preserved on return. Pushing 'Namespace levels' ensures that for every n function calls, you can traverse n instances of previous namespaces. For example, take this namespace level graphic, where each Level is a namespace instance:
Level 0: Global namespace, LSB == '1'. Level 1: Namespace level, where Local Level is at 1, LSB == '0'.
When a function is called, another namespace level is created and the local level increases, like so:
Level 0: Global namespace, LSB == '1'. Level 1: Namespace level. Level 2: Namespace level, where Local Level is at 2, LSB == '0'.
Global scope names (LSB == 1 in the scope argument) are persistent through the runtime as they handle all function definitions, objects, and names declared in the global scope. The "Local Level" is at where references that have a scope argument of '0' refer to when accessing names.
The Namespace argument refers to which Namespace the variable exists in. When the namespace argument equals 0, the current namespace is referenced. The global namespace is 1 by default, and any other namespaces must be declared by using the
Variables in this definition provide the following mechanisms:
For a given variable V, V defines the following attributes
V -> Ownership V -> Type V -> Pointer to typed space in memory
Each variable then can be handled as a generic container.
In the previous section, the notion of Namespace levels was introduced. Much like how names are scoped, generic variable containers must communicate their scope in terms of location within a given set of scopes. This is what is called 'Ownership'. In a given runtime, variable containers can exist in the following structures: A stack instance, Bytecode arguments, and Namespaces
The concept of ownership differentiates variables existing on one or more of the structures. This is set in place to prevent accidental deallocation of variable containers that are not copied, but instead passed as references to these structures.
Functions in this virtual machine are a pointer to a set of instructions in a program with metadata about parameters defined.
In this paradigm, objects are units that encapsulate a separate namespace and collection of methods.
Bytecode is arranged in the following order:
<opcode>, <arg 0>, <arg 1>, <arg 2>
Where the <opcode> is a single byte denoting which subroutine to call with the following arguments when executed. Different opcodes have different argument lengths, some having 0 arguments, and others having 3 arguments.
A bytecode instruction is a single-byte opcode, followed by at maximum 3 arguments, which can be in the following forms:
Below is the specification of all the instructions with a short description for each instruction, and instruction category:
TOS - 'Top Of Stack' The top element TBI - 'To be Implemented' S<[variable]> - Static Argument. N<[variable]> - Name. A<[variable]> - Address Argument. D<[variable]> - Dynamic bytecode argument.
Hex | Memnonic | arguments - description
These subroutines operate on the current-working stack(1).
10 POP S<n> - pops the stack n times. 11 ROT - rotates top of stack 12 DUP - duplicates the top of the stack 13 ROT_THREE - rotates top three elements of stack
20 DEC S<scope> S<type> N - declare variable of type 21 LOV S<scope> N - loads reference variable on to stack 22 STV S<scope> N - stores TOS to reference variable 23 CTV S<scope> N D<data> - loads constant into variable 24 CTS D<data> - loads constant into stack
Types are in the air at this moment. I'll detail what types there are when the time comes
30 TYPEOF - pushes type of TOS on to the stack TBI 31 CAST S<type> - Tries to cast TOS to <type> TBI
OPS take the two top elements of the stack, perform an operation and push the result on the stack.
40 ADD - adds 41 SUB - subtracts 42 MULT - multiplies 43 DIV - divides 44 POW - power, TOS^TOS1 TBI 45 BRT - base root, TOS root TOS1 TBI 46 SIN - sine TBI 47 COS - cosine TBI 48 TAN - tangent TBI 49 ISIN - inverse sine TBI 4A ICOS - inverse consine TBI 4B ITAN - inverse tangent TBI 4C MOD - modulus TBI 4D OR - or's TBI 4E XOR - xor's TBI 4F NAND - and's TBI
Things for comparison, < > = ! and so on and so forth. Behaves like Arithmetic instructions, besides NOT instruction. Pushes boolean to TOS
50 GTHAN - Greater than 51 LTHAN - Less than 52 GTHAN_EQ - Greater than or equal to 53 LTHAN_EQ - Less than or equal to 54 EQ - Equal to 55 NEQ - Not equal to 56 NOT - Inverts TOS if TOS is boolean 57 OR - Boolean OR 58 AND - Boolean AND
60 STARTL - Start of loop 61 CLOOP - Conditional loop. If TOS is true, continue looping, else break 6E BREAK - Breaks out of loop 6F ENDL - End of loop
These instructions dictate code flow.
70 GOTO A<addr> - Goes to address 71 JUMPF A<n> - Goes forward <n> lines 72 IFDO - If TOS is TRUE, do until done, if not, jump to done 73 ELSE - Chained with an IFDO statement, if IFDO fails, execute ELSE block until DONE is reached. 74 JTR - jump-to-return. TBI 75 JTE - jump-to-error. Error object on TOS TBI 7D ERR - Start error block, uses TOS to evaluate error TBI 7E DONE - End of block 7F CALL N - Calls function, pushes return value on to STACK.
80 GETN N<name> - Returns variable associated with name in object 81 SETN N<name> - Sets the variable associated with name in object Object on TOS, Variable on TOS1 82 CALLM N<name> - Calls method in object 83 INDEXO - Index an object, uses argument stack 84 MODO S<OP> - Modify an object based on op. [+, -, *, /, %, ^ .. etc.]
FF DEFUN NS<type> D<args> - Un-funs everything. no, no- it defines a function. D is its name, S<type> is the return value, D<args> is the args.
FE DECLASS ND<args> - Defines a class. FD DENS S - Declares namespace F2 ENDCLASS - End of class block F1 NEW S<scope> N - Instantiates class F0 RETURN - Returns from function
00 NULL - No-op 01 LC N<name> - Calls OS function library, i.e. I/O, opening files, etc. TBI 02 PRINT - Prints whatever is on the TOS. 03 DEBUG - Toggle debug mode 0E ARGB - Builds argument stack 0F PC S - Primitive call, calls a subroutine A. A list of TBI primitive subroutines providing methods to tweak objects this bytecode set cannot touch. Uses argstack.
Going from code to bytecode is what this section is all about. First off an abstract notation for the code will be broken down into a binary tree as so:
<node> /\ / \ / \ <arg><next>
node> can be an argument of its parent node, or the next instruction. Instruction nodes are nodes that will produce an instruction, or multiple based on the bytecode interpretation of its instruction. For example, this line of code:
int x = 3
would translate into:
def /\ / \ / \ / \ / \ int set /\ /\ / \ / \ null 'x' 'x' null /\ / \ null 3
Functions are expressed as individual binary trees. The root of any file is treated as an individual binary tree, as this is also a function.
The various instruction nodes are as follows:
The various instruction nodes within the tree will call specific functions that will take arguments specified and lookahead and lookbehind to formulate the correct bytecode equivalent.
The developer of the language, Paul Longtine, operates a publicly available website and blog called banna.tech, named after his online alias 'banna'.
C is a general-purpose computer programming language. It was created in the 1970s by Dennis Ritchie, and remains very widely used and influential. By design, C's features cleanly reflect the capabilities of the targeted CPUs. It has found lasting use in operating systems, device drivers, protocol stacks, though decreasingly for application software, and is common in computer architectures that range from the largest supercomputers to the smallest microcontrollers and embedded systems.
Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (S20018). The Common Lisp HyperSpec, a hyperlinked HTML version, has been derived from the ANSI Common Lisp standard.
A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages that are also compiled to Java bytecode. The JVM is detailed by a specification that formally describes what is required in a JVM implementation. Having a specification ensures interoperability of Java programs across different implementations so that program authors using the Java Development Kit (JDK) need not worry about idiosyncrasies of the underlying hardware platform.
Common Intermediate Language (CIL), formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) or Intermediate Language (IL), is the intermediate language binary instruction set defined within the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification. CIL instructions are executed by a CLI-compatible runtime environment such as the Common Language Runtime. Languages which target the CLI compile to CIL. CIL is object-oriented, stack-based bytecode. Runtimes typically just-in-time compile CIL instructions into native code.
Lua is a lightweight, high-level, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications. Lua is cross-platform, since the interpreter of compiled bytecode is written in ANSI C, and Lua has a relatively simple C API to embed it into applications.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution:
In programming languages, a closure, also lexical closure or function closure, is a technique for implementing lexically scoped name binding in a language with first-class functions. Operationally, a closure is a record storing a function together with an environment. The environment is a mapping associating each free variable of the function with the value or reference to which the name was bound when the closure was created. Unlike a plain function, a closure allows the function to access those captured variables through the closure's copies of their values or references, even when the function is invoked outside their scope.
Bytecode, also termed p-code, is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter. Unlike human-readable source code, bytecodes are compact numeric codes, constants, and references that encode the result of compiler parsing and performing semantic analysis of things like type, scope, and nesting depths of program objects.
x86 assembly language is the name for the family of assembly languages which provide some level of backward compatibility with CPUs back to the Intel 8008 microprocessor, which was launched in April 1972. It is used to produce object code for the x86 class of processors.
In computer science, a pointer is an object in many programming languages that stores a memory address. This can be that of another value located in computer memory, or in some cases, that of memory-mapped computer hardware. A pointer references a location in memory, and obtaining the value stored at that location is known as dereferencing the pointer. As an analogy, a page number in a book's index could be considered a pointer to the corresponding page; dereferencing such a pointer would be done by flipping to the page with the given page number and reading the text found on that page. The actual format and content of a pointer variable is dependent on the underlying computer architecture.
ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc.. It is influenced by HyperTalk, the scripting language for HyperCard. It is now an implementation of ECMAScript, though it originally arose as a sibling, both being influenced by HyperTalk. ActionScript code is usually converted to byte-code format by the compiler.
This article compares two programming languages: C# with Java. While the focus of this article is mainly the languages and their features, such a comparison will necessarily also consider some features of platforms and libraries. For a more detailed comparison of the platforms, see Comparison of the Java and .NET platforms.
Partial template specialization is a particular form of class template specialization. Usually used in reference to the C++ programming language, it allows the programmer to specialize only some arguments of a class template, as opposed to explicit full specialization, where all the template arguments are provided.
typedef is a reserved keyword in the programming languages C and C++. It is used to create an additional name (alias) for another data type, but does not create a new type, except in the obscure case of a qualified typedef of an array type where the typedef qualifiers are transferred to the array element type. As such, it is often used to simplify the syntax of declaring complex data structures consisting of struct and union types, although it is also commonly used to provide specific descriptive type names for integer data types of varying sizes.
In computer science, recursion is a method of solving a computational problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem. Recursion solves such recursive problems by using functions that call themselves from within their own code. The approach can be applied to many types of problems, and recursion is one of the central ideas of computer science.
The power of recursion evidently lies in the possibility of defining an infinite set of objects by a finite statement. In the same manner, an infinite number of computations can be described by a finite recursive program, even if this program contains no explicit repetitions.
This article describes the syntax of the C# programming language. The features described are compatible with .NET Framework and Mono.
C# Open Source Managed Operating System (Cosmos) is a toolkit for building operating systems, written mostly in the programming language C# and small amounts of a high level assembly language named X#. Cosmos is a backronym, in that the acronym was chosen before the meaning. It is open-source software released under a BSD license.
This comparison of programming languages compares how object-oriented programming languages such as C++, Java, Smalltalk, Object Pascal, Perl, Python, and others manipulate data structures.
Java bytecode is the bytecode-structured instruction set of the Java virtual machine (JVM).