Torlak Kemal, born as Samuel of Manisa (died 1419 in Manisa), was one of the followers of Sheikh Bedreddin. Together with Börklüce Mustafa, he led the Sheikh Bedreddin revolt.
Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.
Torlak Kemal, a murid of Sheikh Bedreddin (1359–1420), was known with his birth name Samuel of Manisa. He later converted to Islam and changed his name to Kemal and became a Torlak, a Kalenderis.
In Sufism, a murīd or mureed is a novice committed to spiritual enlightenment by sulūk under a spiritual guide, who may take the title murshid, pir or shaykh. A sālik or Sufi follower only becomes a murīd when he makes a pledge (bayʿah) to a murshid. The equivalent Persian term is shāgird.
Sheikh Bedreddin (1359–1420) was an influential mystic, scholar, theologian, and revolutionary. He is most well known for his role in a 1416 revolt against the Ottoman Empire, in which he and his disciples posed a serious challenge to the authority of Sultan Mehmed I and the Ottoman state. His full name was Sheikh Bedreddin Mahmud Bin Israel Bin Abdulaziz.
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example of Muhammad.
Probably around the same time as Börklüce Mustafa, he started a rebellion in Manisa, Ottoman Empire. The uprising was a small one. It was crushed with violence by the Ottomans, and all the rebels where killed. It is unknown whether the rebellion was committed with the approval of Sheikh bedreddin, but all sources agree on the fact that Börklüce Mustafa and Torlak Kemal were followers of Sheikh Bedreddin, a Muslim Sufi theologian, who led a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire in 1416. In 1419, the rebellion was defeated, and Torlak Kemal was captured and executed by hanging in Manisa.
Börklüce Mustafa was one of the principal disciples of Sheikh Bedreddin. He lived around the turn of the 14th/15th centuries, and preached a system that can be compared to modern Communism. Between 1415–1416 he gathered Turkmen peasants, Greek sailors and Jewish merchants on the Karaburun peninsula in order to rebel against high taxes and other injustices.
The Ottoman Empire, also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
Mehmed I, also known as Mehmed Çelebi or Kirişci, was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421. The fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I and Devlet Hatun, he fought with his brothers over control of the Ottoman realm in the Ottoman Interregnum (1402–1413). Starting from the province of Rûm he managed to bring first Anatolia and then the European territories (Rumelia) under his control, reuniting the Ottoman state by 1413, and ruling it until his death in 1421.
Mehmed III was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death in 1603.
Mustafa I, called Mustafa the Saint during his second reign and often called Mustafa the Mad by modern historians, was the son of Mehmed III and was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623.
Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi was the eldest son of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his chief consort Mahidevran Sultan. He was the prince-governor of Manisa from 1533 to 1541, of Amasya from 1541 to 1549 and of Konya from 1549 to 1553. Şehzade Mustafa was the heir apparent to the Ottoman throne and a very popular prince among the army prior to his execution, by order of his father, which he later regretted.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal), revolutionary statesman, author, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism.
Islamic anarchism is based on an interpretation of Islam as "submission to God" which either prohibits or is highly critical of the role of human authority.
The single-party period of the Republic of Turkey began with the formal establishment of the country in 1923. The Republican People's Party (CHP) was the only party between 1923 and 1945, when the National Development Party was established. After winning the first multiparty elections in 1946 by a landslide, the Republican People's Party lost the majority to the Democratic Party in the 1950 elections. During the single-party period, President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk repeatedly requested that opposition parties be established against the Republican People's Party in order to transition into multi-party democracy; in 1930, the Liberal Republican Party was established but dissolved by its founder. The Progressive Republican Party had also been established in 1924 by Kazım Karabekir, but was banned after its members' involvement in the 1925 Sheikh Said rebellion. Despite Atatürk's efforts in establishing a self-propagating multi-party system during his presidency, this was only established after his death in 1938.
Musa Kâzım Karabekir was a Turkish general and politician. He was the commander of the Eastern Army of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I and served as Speaker of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey before his death.
The Turkish National Movement encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros. The Ottomans saw the movement as part of an international conspiracy against them. The Turkish revolutionaries rebelled against this partitioning and against the Treaty of Sèvres, signed in 1920 by the Ottoman government, which partitioned portions of Anatolia itself.
The Sheikh Said Rebellion or Genç Incident was a Kurdish rebellion aimed at reviving the Islamic caliphate and sultanate. It used elements of Kurdish nationalism to recruit. It was led by Sheikh Said and a group of former Ottoman soldiers also known as "Hamidiye". The rebellion was carried out by two Kurdish sub-groups, the Zaza and the Kurmanj.
Bekir Sami Bey was a Turkish politician of Ossetian origin. He served as the first Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey during 1920–1921.
Bayezid Pasha or Beyazid Pasha was an Ottoman statesman who served as grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1413 to 1421.
Mahmud Pasha Angelović was the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1456 to 1466 and again from 1472 to 1474, who also wrote Persian and Turkish poems under the pseudonym Adni.
Şehzade Mehmed (1521–1543) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade), son of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and Hürrem Sultan. He was assigned to rule in Manisa after his brother Şehzade Mustafa was sent to Amasya from there.
Halime Sultan was a consort of Sultan Mehmed III, and the mother of Sultan Mustafa I and the Valide Sultan as well as a regent of the Ottoman empire. She had four children with Mehmed: Şehzade Mahmud, Mustafa I, and two daughter. She was de facto-co-ruler as Valide Sultan from 22 November 1617 to 26 February 1618 and from 19 May 1622 to 10 September 1623. She is one of powerful woman of the Ottoman Empire. Halime was also one of the eminent figures during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. Halime lived in the Ottoman empire as a courtier during the reign of five Sultans: Murad III, Mehmed III, Ahmed I, Mustafa I, and Osman II.
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Mihaloğlu Mehmed Bey was a member of the Mihaloğulları family and one of the most important frontier warlords of the Ottoman Balkans during the last phase of the civil war of the Ottoman Interregnum (1403–1413), and during the early years of Murad II's reign.
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