Torlak Kemal

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Torlak Kemal, born as Samuel of Manisa (died 1419 in Manisa), was one of the followers of Sheikh Bedreddin. Together with Börklüce Mustafa, he led the Sheikh Bedreddin revolt.

Manisa metropolitan municipality in Manisa Province, Aegean Region, Turkey

Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.



Torlak Kemal, a murid of Sheikh Bedreddin (1359–1420), was known with his birth name Samuel of Manisa. He later converted to Islam and changed his name to Kemal and became a Torlak, a Kalenderis.

In Sufism, a murīd or mureed is a novice committed to spiritual enlightenment by sulūk under a spiritual guide, who may take the title murshid, pir or shaykh. A sālik or Sufi follower only becomes a murīd when he makes a pledge (bayʿah) to a murshid. The equivalent Persian term is shāgird.

Sheikh Bedreddin (1359–1420) was an influential mystic, scholar, theologian, and revolutionary. He is most well known for his role in a 1416 revolt against the Ottoman Empire, in which he and his disciples posed a serious challenge to the authority of Sultan Mehmed I and the Ottoman state. His full name was Sheikh Bedreddin Mahmud Bin Israel Bin Abdulaziz.

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example of Muhammad.


Probably around the same time as Börklüce Mustafa, he started a rebellion in Manisa, Ottoman Empire. The uprising was a small one. It was crushed with violence by the Ottomans, and all the rebels where killed. It is unknown whether the rebellion was committed with the approval of Sheikh bedreddin, but all sources agree on the fact that Börklüce Mustafa and Torlak Kemal were followers of Sheikh Bedreddin, a Muslim Sufi theologian, who led a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire in 1416. In 1419, the rebellion was defeated, and Torlak Kemal was captured and executed by hanging in Manisa.

Börklüce Mustafa was one of the principal disciples of Sheikh Bedreddin. He lived around the turn of the 14th/15th centuries, and preached a system that can be compared to modern Communism. Between 1415–1416 he gathered Turkmen peasants, Greek sailors and Jewish merchants on the Karaburun peninsula in order to rebel against high taxes and other injustices.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

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