Truck sleeper

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Sleeper compartment behind driver's compartment in a modern semi-trailer truck Mack Vision 427 sleeper cab truck.jpg
Sleeper compartment behind driver's compartment in a modern semi-trailer truck

A truck sleeper or sleeper cab is a compartment attached behind the cabin of a tractor unit used for rest or sleeping.

Contents

Origin

The word "sleeper" references a sleeper car which is a railroad car with sleeping facilities for passengers travelling overnight.

Early (1933) sleeper cab bed 1933 Tidaholm T6L sleeper cab bed.jpg
Early (1933) sleeper cab bed

Limits for drivers requiring a driver to have 10 consecutive hours off duty after working a maximum of 11 hours.[ where? ] These safety regulations required drivers to find a place to rest once they reached the maximum number of allotted hours. Many drivers chose to sleep in the cab or cabin of their trucks rather than pay for a road side motel. Truck manufacturers took notice of this and began developing tractor units with extended cabs to provide a sleeping area for drivers. Similar regulations apply in Australia [1] [2] [3] and in other parts of the world.

Sleeper cabins

Modern sleeper cab interior Kenworth driving cab, Kenworth Dealer Hall of Fame, 2015 (04).JPG
Modern sleeper cab interior

Sleeping berths came into use as early as the 1920s, but they were often unsafe and uncomfortable. [4] They nonetheless allowed owner-operators to spend months at a time on road, often driving in teams of two (one drove while the other slept). [4] With this successful formula, drivers began making requests to truck manufacturers for larger and larger sleeping cabins. Manufacturers began catering to owner operators who requested greater luxury. Sleepers were initially developed without comfort in mind at 18 to 24 in (457 to 610 mm). They quickly grew to 36 to 48 in (914 to 1,219 mm) with long haul drivers in mind. Their size came to be regulated in the US in the 1950s but length restrictions were removed in the 1980s. [4] Custom truck sleepers vary in size in modern trucks from 36 in (914 mm) to the massive 230 in (5,842 mm). Custom sleepers come equipped with many of the amenities of modern RVs. By 2000, approximately 70% of new trucks manufactured in the US included sleeper berths. [4]

Related Research Articles

Truck Commercial or utilitarian motor vehicle

A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo, carry specialized payloads, or perform other utilitarian work. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, but the vast majority feature body-on-frame construction, with a cabin that is independent of the payload portion of the vehicle. Smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful and may be configured to be mounted with specialized equipment, such as in the case of refuse trucks, fire trucks, concrete mixers, and suction excavators. In American English, a commercial vehicle without a trailer or other articulation is formally a "straight truck" while one designed specifically to pull a trailer is not a truck but a "tractor".

International Harvester American manufacturing company

The International Harvester Company was an American manufacturer of agricultural and construction equipment, automobiles, commercial trucks, lawn and garden products, household equipment, and more. It was formed from the 1902 merger of McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company and three smaller manufactures: Milwaukee; Plano; and Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner. In the 1980s all divisions were sold off except for International Trucks, which changed its parent company name to Navistar International. Its brands included McCormick, Deering, and later McCormick-Deering, as well as International. Along with the Farmall and Cub Cadet tractors, International was also known for the Scout and Travelall vehicle nameplates.

Truck driver Person who earns a living as the driver of a truck

A truck driver is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck, which is commonly defined as a large goods vehicle (LGV) or heavy goods vehicle (HGV).

Autocar Company American truck manufacturer

The Autocar Company is an American specialist manufacturer of severe-duty, Class 7 and Class 8 vocational trucks, with its headquarters in Birmingham, Alabama. Started in 1897 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as a manufacturer of Brass Era automobiles, and trucks from 1899, Autocar is the oldest surviving motor vehicle brand in the Western Hemisphere.

Tractor unit

A tractor unit is a characteristically heavy-duty towing engine that provides motive power for hauling a towed or trailered load. These fall into two categories: heavy- and medium-duty military and commercial rear-wheel-drive semi-tractors used for hauling semi-trailers, and very heavy-duty typically off-road-capable, often 6×6, military and commercial tractor units, including ballast tractors.

Cab over Truck with the cabin above the engine

Cab-over, also known as cab over engine (COE), cab forward (U.S.), flat nose (Canada), or forward control (UK), is a body style of truck, bus, or van that has a vertical front, "flat face" or a semi-hood, with the cab of the truck sitting above the front axle. This contrasts with a conventional truck where the engine is mounted in front of the driver.

Articulated hauler

An articulated hauler, articulated dump truck (ADT), or sometimes a dump hauler, is a very large heavy-duty type of dump truck used to transport loads over rough terrain, and occasionally on public roads. The vehicle usually has all-wheel drive and consists of two basic units: the front section, generally called the tractor, and the rear section that contains the dump body, called the hauler or trailer section. Steering is made by pivoting the front in relation to the back by hydraulic rams. This way, all wheels follow the same path, making it an excellent off-road vehicle.

Idle reduction

Idle reduction describes technologies and practices that minimize the amount of time drivers idle their engines. Avoiding idling time has a multitude of benefits including: savings in fuel and maintenance costs, extending vehicle life, and reducing damaging emissions. An idling engine consumes only enough power to keep itself and its accessories running, therefore, producing no usable power to the drive train.

The Urals Automotive Plant, an Open Stock Company, is a major Russian manufacturer of off-road trucks under the Ural brand. Located in the city of Miass, Chelyabinsk Oblast in the Ural Mountains. The plant was established in 1941; when the ZiS truck plant was evacuated from Moscow during World War II.

Hours of service U.S. commercial motor vehicle driver working and rest period restrictions

Hours of Service (HOS) regulations are issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and govern the working hours of anyone operating a commercial motor vehicle (CMV) in the United States. These regulations apply to truck drivers, commercial and intercity bus drivers, and school bus drivers who operate CMVs. These rules limit the number of daily and weekly hours spent driving and working, and regulate the minimum amount of time drivers must spend resting between driving shifts. For intrastate commerce, the respective state's regulations apply.

Trucking industry in the United States American industry

The trucking industry serves the American economy by transporting large quantities of raw materials, works in process, and finished goods over land—typically from manufacturing plants to retail distribution centers. Trucks are also used in the construction industry, two of which require dump trucks and portable concrete mixers to move the large amounts of rocks, dirt, concrete, and other building materials used in construction. Trucks in America are responsible for the majority of freight movement over land and are tools in the manufacturing, transportation, and warehousing industries.

Electronic on-board recorder Electronic device used to track the time a vehicle is being driven

An electronic on-board recorder (EOBR) is an electronic device attached to a commercial motor vehicle, which is used to record the amount of time a vehicle is being driven. This is similar to the tachograph, and is the American equivalent of the digital tachograph used in Europe. Trucks in the European Union are required to have digital tachographs installed, and are securely monitored by government agencies. However, in Europe, the new digital tachograph which is considered secure, can be tricked with a round magnet placed by drivers over the connection to the transmission box. Usually they tie a rope to that magnet, and with a simple pull, the magnet will disengage and will show that the driver started moving about half an hour ago . The majority of carriers and drivers in the United States currently use paper-based log books. On January 31, 2011, the U.S. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) proposed a rule requiring Electronic On-Board Recorders for interstate commercial truck and bus companies. The proposed rule covers interstate carriers that currently use log books to record driver's hours of service. The proposal would affect more than 500,000 carriers in the United States and carriers that currently use time cards would be exempt.

A specialized set of jargon describe the tools, equipment, and employment sectors used in the trucking industry in the United States. Some terms may be used within other English-speaking countries, or within the freight industry in general. For example, shore power is a term borrowed from shipping terminology, in which electrical power is transferred from shore to ship, instead of the ship relying upon idling its engines. Drawing power from land lines is more efficient than engine idling and eliminates localized air pollution. Another borrowed term is "landing gear", which refers to the legs which support the front end of a semi-trailer when it is not connected to a semi-truck. Some nicknames are obvious wordplay, such as "portable parking lot", in reference to a truck that carries automobiles.

International ProStar Motor vehicle

The International ProStar is a line of Class 8 trucks that was manufactured by Navistar International from 2006 to 2017. Marking the introduction of the "-Star" branding nomenclature to International, the conventional-cab ProStar replaced the 9400i. Competing against the Freightliner Cascadia and the Kenworth T2000/Peterbilt 387, the ProStar was an aerodynamically-enhanced conventional.

Western Star Trucks American truck manufacturer

Western Star Trucks Sales, Inc. is an American truck manufacturer headquartered in Portland, Oregon, and a subsidiary of Daimler Truck North America, which is in turn a wholly owned subsidiary of the Germany-based Daimler Truck.

Mercedes-Benz NG Motor vehicle

The "New Generation“ is a series of trucks by Daimler-Benz built from 1973 to 1988. It was then replaced by the Mercedes-Benz SK series. With the "New Generation", Daimler-Benz expanded its market position in the medium and heavy truck segments. Its cab was also used by Mercedes-Benz of North America, who confusingly offered it with inline-six or -five engines as the LP series beginning in 1985.

Freightliner Cascadia Motor vehicle

The Freightliner Cascadia is a heavy-duty semi-trailer truck and the flagship model of Freightliner. Its design took fuel efficiency into greater consideration, and several other features including the powertrain offerings, sound mitigation, safety systems, and overall mechanical reliability were improved from its predecessors. It is offered in three basic configurations: Day Cab, Mid-Roof XT, and Raised Roof. The latter two models are sleeper cabs, offered in various lengths ranging from 48 to 72 inches. The Cascadia was sold chiefly in North America until 2020, when an export version primarily geared towards the Australian and New Zealand markets was introduced. Prior to the introduction of the export variant, its place remained occupied by the Freightliner Century for export markets.

Volvo Trucks Swedish truck manufacturer

Volvo Trucks, stylized as VOLVO, is a global truck brand based in Gothenburg, Sweden. In 2016, it was the world’s second largest manufacturer of heavy-duty trucks.

Scania PRT-range Range of modular trucks from Scania

The Scania PRT-range, also referred to as new truck range or Scania's truck range, is the current range of trucks produced by the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania. It was first introduced as the successor to the 4-series in spring 2004 with the high forward control cab Scania R-series, followed by the low forward control cab Scania P-series and bonneted cab Scania T-series later in the year. The bonneted model was discontinued in 2005. In 2007 the Scania G-series, a medium forward control cab was introduced and was derived from the R-series. The entire range is modular, giving a wide range of different configurations for different types of trucks. The trucks are available with engines ranging from a 9-litre I5 to a 16-litre V8, with the V8 only being available in the higher model. A second generation launched in August 2016, first was the Scania S-series being the first flat-floor model. In December 2017, a low-end version of the second generation, the Scania L-series, also launched.

References

  1. www.chainofresponsibilityonline.com.au https://www.chainofresponsibilityonline.com.au/blog/truck-sleeper-cabs-under-authority-spotlight/ . Retrieved 4 July 2018.{{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. content.safetyculture.com.au http://content.safetyculture.com.au/news/index.php/10/truck-sleeper-cabs-safety/ . Retrieved 4 July 2018.{{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. www.legislation.nsw.gov.au(PDF) https://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/regulations/1996-487.pdf . Retrieved 4 July 2018.{{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. 1 2 3 4 NTSB, Truck parking areas , Diane Publishing, May 2001, p. 6