In mathematics and computer science, **truncation** is limiting the number of digits right of the decimal point.

Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the floor function. Given a number to be truncated and , the number of elements to be kept behind the decimal point, the truncated value of x is

However, for negative numbers truncation does not round in the same direction as the floor function: truncation always rounds toward zero, the floor function rounds towards negative infinity. For a given number , the function ceil is used instead.

In some cases trunc(*x*,0) is written as [*x*].^{[ citation needed ]} See Notation of floor and ceiling functions.

With computers, truncation can occur when a decimal number is typecast as an integer; it is truncated to zero decimal digits because integers cannot store non-integer real numbers.

An analogue of truncation can be applied to polynomials. In this case, the truncation of a polynomial *P* to degree *n* can be defined as the sum of all terms of *P* of degree *n* or less. Polynomial truncations arise in the study of Taylor polynomials, for example.^{ [1] }

In mathematics, a **complex number** is a number that can be expressed in the form *a* + *bi*, where a and b are real numbers, and i is a symbol, called the imaginary unit, that satisfies the equation *i*^{2} = −1. Because no real number satisfies this equation, i was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number *a* + *bi*, a is called the **real part** and b is called the **imaginary part**. The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols or **C**. Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world.

In mathematics, the **factorial** of a non-negative integer n, denoted by *n*!, is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n:

In computing, **floating-point arithmetic** (**FP**) is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation to support a trade-off between range and precision. For this reason, floating-point computation is often used in systems with very small and very large real numbers that require fast processing times. In general, a floating-point number is represented approximately with a fixed number of significant digits and scaled using an exponent in some fixed base; the base for the scaling is normally two, ten, or sixteen. A number that can be represented exactly is of the following form:

An **integer** is colloquially defined as a number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, 5+1/2, and √2 are not.

A **number** is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represented in language with number words. More universally, individual numbers can be represented by symbols, called *numerals*; for example, "5" is a numeral that represents the number five. As only a relatively small number of symbols can be memorized, basic numerals are commonly organized in a numeral system, which is an organized way to represent any number. The most common numeral system is the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, which allows for the representation of any number using a combination of ten fundamental numeric symbols, called digits. In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels, for ordering, and for codes. In common usage, a *numeral* is not clearly distinguished from the *number* that it represents.

In mathematics, a **square root** of a number *x* is a number *y* such that *y*^{2} = *x*; in other words, a number *y* whose *square* (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or *y* ⋅ *y*) is *x*. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16, because 4^{2} = (−4)^{2} = 16. Every nonnegative real number *x* has a unique nonnegative square root, called the *principal square root*, which is denoted by where the symbol is called the *radical sign* or *radix*. For example, the principal square root of 9 is 3, which is denoted by because 3^{2} = 3 ⋅ 3 = 9 and 3 is nonnegative. The term (or number) whose square root is being considered is known as the *radicand*. The radicand is the number or expression underneath the radical sign, in this case 9.

In mathematics, the **p-adic number system** for any prime number p extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a different way from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems. The extension is achieved by an alternative interpretation of the concept of "closeness" or absolute value. In particular, two p-adic numbers are considered to be close when their difference is divisible by a high power of p: the higher the power, the closer they are. This property enables p-adic numbers to encode congruence information in a way that turns out to have powerful applications in number theory – including, for example, in the famous proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles.

**Rounding** means replacing a number with an approximate value that has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation. For example, replacing $23.4476 with $23.45, the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression √2 with 1.414.

In mathematics, a **root of unity**, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that yields 1 when raised to some positive integer power n. Roots of unity are used in many branches of mathematics, and are especially important in number theory, the theory of group characters, and the discrete Fourier transform.

**Balanced ternary** is a ternary numeral system that uses a balanced signed-digit representation of the integers in which the digits have the values −1, 0, and 1. This stands in contrast to the standard (unbalanced) ternary system, in which digits have values 0, 1 and 2. The balanced ternary system can represent all integers without using a separate minus sign; the value of the leading non-zero digit of a number has the sign of the number itself. While binary numerals with digits 0 and 1 provide the simplest positional numeral system for natural numbers, balanced ternary provides the simplest self-contained positional numeral system for integers. The balanced ternary system is an example of a non-standard positional numeral system. It was used in some early computers and also in some solutions of balance puzzles.

The **IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic** is a technical standard for floating-point arithmetic established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The standard addressed many problems found in the diverse floating-point implementations that made them difficult to use reliably and portably. Many hardware floating-point units use the IEEE 754 standard.

**Positional notation** usually denotes the extension to any base of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. More generally, a positional system is a numeral system in which the contribution of a digit to the value of a number is the value of the digit multiplied by a factor determined by the position of the digit. In early numeral systems, such as Roman numerals, a digit has only one value: I means one, X means ten and C a hundred. In modern positional systems, such as the decimal system, the position of the digit means that its value must be multiplied by some value: in 555, the three identical symbols represent five hundreds, five tens, and five units, respectively, due to their different positions in the digit string.

The **fractional part** or **decimal part** of a non‐negative real number is the excess beyond that number's integer part. If the latter is defined as the largest integer not greater than x, called floor of x or , its fractional part can be written as:

In computing, the **modulo operation** returns the remainder or signed remainder of a division, after one number is divided by another.

**Methods of computing square roots** are numerical analysis algorithms for finding the principal, or non-negative, square root of a real number. Arithmetically, it means given , a procedure for finding a number which when multiplied by itself, yields ; algebraically, it means a procedure for finding the non-negative root of the equation ; geometrically, it means given the area of a square, a procedure for constructing a side of the square.

A **division algorithm** is an algorithm which, given two integers N and D, computes their quotient and/or remainder, the result of Euclidean division. Some are applied by hand, while others are employed by digital circuit designs and software.

In mathematics, a **negligible function** is a function such that for every positive integer *c* there exists an integer *N*_{c} such that for all *x* > *N*_{c},

A **negative base** may be used to construct a non-standard positional numeral system. Like other place-value systems, each position holds multiples of the appropriate power of the system's base; but that base is negative—that is to say, the base b is equal to −r for some natural number r.

A **repeating decimal** or **recurring decimal** is decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic and the infinitely repeated portion is not zero. It can be shown that a number is rational if and only if its decimal representation is repeating or terminating. For example, the decimal representation of 1/3 becomes periodic just after the decimal point, repeating the single digit "3" forever, i.e. 0.333.... A more complicated example is 3227/555, whose decimal becomes periodic at the *second* digit following the decimal point and then repeats the sequence "144" forever, i.e. 5.8144144144.... At present, there is no single universally accepted notation or phrasing for repeating decimals.

In mathematics, a **real number** is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line. The adjective *real* in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes, who distinguished between real and imaginary roots of polynomials. The real numbers include all the rational numbers, such as the integer −5 and the fraction 4/3, and all the irrational numbers, such as . Included within the irrationals are the real transcendental numbers, such as π (3.14159265...). In addition to measuring distance, real numbers can be used to measure quantities such as time, mass, energy, velocity, and many more. The set of real numbers is denoted using the symbol **R** or and is sometimes called "the reals".

- ↑ Spivak, Michael (2008).
*Calculus*(4th ed.). p. 434. ISBN 978-0-914098-91-1.

- Wall paper applet that visualizes errors due to finite precision

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