Watson interferometer

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The Watson interferometer is a vintage microscope accessory (for use only in reflected light microscopy) which was manufactured by the Watson Company in Great Britain. It is a variant of Michelson interferometer that can be installed on a conventional microscope. It consists of a beam splitter and varying the distance between the specimen surface and the image of the reference mirror creates interference fringes. For transmitted light investigations in biology, the C. Watson company produced the Smith/Baker system in the 1950s.

Michelson interferometer common configuration for optical interferometry invented by Albert Abraham Michelson

The Michelson interferometer is a common configuration for optical interferometry and was invented by Albert Abraham Michelson. Using a beam splitter, a light source is split into two arms. Each of those light beams is reflected back toward the beamsplitter which then combines their amplitudes using the superposition principle. The resulting interference pattern that is not directed back toward the source is typically directed to some type of photoelectric detector or camera. For different applications of the interferometer, the two light paths can be with different lengths or incorporate optical elements or even materials under test.

Beam splitter optical device that splits a beam of light in two, crucial part of most interferometers

A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two. It is the crucial part of most interferometers.

Classical interference microscopy, also called quantitative interference microscopy, uses two separate light beams with much greater lateral separation than that used in phase contrast microscopy or in differential interference microscopy (DIC).

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Fourier-transform spectroscopy is a measurement technique whereby spectra are collected based on measurements of the coherence of a radiative source, using time-domain or space-domain measurements of the electromagnetic radiation or other type of radiation. It can be applied to a variety of types of spectroscopy including optical spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), mass spectrometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. There are several methods for measuring the temporal coherence of the light, including the continuous wave Michelson or Fourier-transform spectrometer and the pulsed Fourier-transform spectrograph.

Cathodoluminescence

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Interferometry measurement method using interference of waves

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Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution. In physics and geosciences, the term spatial resolution refers to the precision of a measurement with respect to space.

Mach–Zehnder interferometer interferometer

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Sagnac effect

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Virgo interferometer gravitational waves detector

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Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

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Mirau interferometer

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The N-slit interferometer is an extension of the double-slit interferometer also known as Young's double-slit interferometer. One of the first known uses of N-slit arrays in optics was illustrated by Newton. In the first part of last century, Michelson described various cases of N-slit diffraction.

Length measurement is implemented in practice in many ways. The most commonly used approaches are the transit-time methods and the interferometer methods based upon the speed of light. For objects such as crystals and diffraction gratings, diffraction is used with X-rays and electron beams. Measurement techniques for three-dimensional structures very small in every dimension use specialized instruments such as ion microscopy coupled with intensive computer modeling.

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White light interferometry

As described here, white light interferometry is a non-contact optical method for surface height measurement on 3-D structures with surface profiles varying between tens of nanometers and a few centimeters. It is often used as an alternative name for coherence scanning interferometry in the context of areal surface topography instrumentation that relies on spectrally-broadband, visible-wavelength light.

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