Wave surface

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In mathematics, Fresnel's wave surface, found by Augustin-Jean Fresnel in 1822, is a quartic surface describing the propagation of light in an optically biaxial crystal. Wave surfaces are special cases of tetrahedroids which are in turn special cases of Kummer surfaces.

Augustin-Jean Fresnel French civil engineer and optical physicist

Augustin-Jean Fresnel was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s  until the end of the 19th century. He is perhaps better known for inventing the catadioptric (reflective/refractive) Fresnel lens and for pioneering the use of "stepped" lenses to extend the visibility of lighthouses, saving countless lives at sea. The simpler dioptric stepped lens, first proposed by Count Buffon  and independently reinvented by Fresnel, is used in screen magnifiers and in condenser lenses for overhead projectors.

In mathematics, especially in algebraic geometry, a quartic surface is a surface defined by an equation of degree 4.

In algebraic geometry, a tetrahedroid is a special kind of Kummer surface studied by Cayley (1846), with the property that the intersections with the faces of a fixed tetrahedron are given by two conics intersecting in four nodes. Tetrahedroids generalize Fresnel's wave surface.

In projective coordinates (w:x:y:z) the wave surface is given by

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Fresnel equations equations of light transmission and reflection

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Total internal reflection physical phenomenon

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Fermats principle Principle of least time in physics

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Siméon Denis Poisson French mathematician, mechanician and physicist

Baron Siméon Denis Poisson FRS FRSE was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist who made many scientific advances.

Quartic function Polynomial function of degree four

In algebra, a quartic function is a function of the form

Kummer surface irreducible nodal surface

In algebraic geometry, a Kummer quartic surface, first studied by Kummer (1864), is an irreducible nodal surface of degree 4 in with the maximal possible number of 16 double points. Any such surface is the Kummer variety of the Jacobian variety of a smooth hyperelliptic curve of genus 2; i.e. a quotient of the Jacobian by the Kummer involution x ↦ −x. The Kummer involution has 16 fixed points: the 16 2-torsion point of the Jacobian, and they are the 16 singular points of the quartic surface. Resolving the 16 double points of the quotient of a torus by the Kummer involution gives a K3 surface with 16 disjoint rational curves; these K3 surfaces are also sometimes called Kummer surfaces.

Dupin cyclide geometric inversion of a standard torus, cylinder or double cone

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In mathematics, a confluent hypergeometric function is a solution of a confluent hypergeometric equation, which is a degenerate form of a hypergeometric differential equation where two of the three regular singularities merge into an irregular singularity. There are several common standard forms of confluent hypergeometric functions:

Fresnel diffraction

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In fluid dynamics, Airy wave theory gives a linearised description of the propagation of gravity waves on the surface of a homogeneous fluid layer. The theory assumes that the fluid layer has a uniform mean depth, and that the fluid flow is inviscid, incompressible and irrotational. This theory was first published, in correct form, by George Biddell Airy in the 19th century.

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Desmic system

In projective geometry, a desmic system is a set of three tetrahedra in 3-dimensional projective space, such that any two are desmic,. It was introduced by Stephanos (1879). The three tetrahedra of a desmic system are contained in a pencil of quartic surfaces. The name "desmic" comes from the Greek word δεσμός, meaning band or chain, referring to the pencil of quartics.

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In fluid dynamics, the radiation stress is the depth-integrated – and thereafter phase-averaged – excess momentum flux caused by the presence of the surface gravity waves, which is exerted on the mean flow. The radiation stresses behave as a second-order tensor.

Spherical wave transformations leave the form of spherical waves as well as the laws of optics and electrodynamics invariant in all inertial frames. They were defined between 1908 and 1909 by Harry Bateman and Ebenezer Cunningham, with Bateman giving the transformation its name. They correspond to the conformal group of "transformations by reciprocal radii" in relation to the framework of Lie sphere geometry, which were already known in the 19th century. Time is used as fourth dimension as in Minkowski space, so spherical wave transformations are connected to the Lorentz transformation of special relativity, and it turns out that the spacetime conformal group includes the Lorentz group and the Poincaré group as subgroups. However, only the Lorentz/Poincaré groups represent symmetries of all laws of nature including mechanics, whereas the conformal group is related to certain areas such as electrodynamics. In addition, it can be shown that the conformal group of the plane is isomorphic to the Lorentz group.

Trochoidal wave An exact solution of the Euler equations for periodic surface gravity waves

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References

Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

International Standard Serial Number unique eight-digit number used to identify a print or electronic periodical publication

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.

Arthur Cayley English mathematician

Arthur Cayley was a prolific British mathematician who worked mostly on algebra. He helped found the modern British school of pure mathematics.