Alethiology

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Alethiology (or alethology, "the study of aletheia") literally means the study of truth , but can more accurately be translated as the study of the nature of truth.| [1]

Aletheia is truth or disclosure in philosophy. It was used in Ancient Greek philosophy and revived in the 20th century by Martin Heidegger.

Truth philosophical concept

Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth is also sometimes defined in modern contexts as an idea of "truth to self", or authenticity.

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It could be argued that alethiology is synonymous with epistemology , the study of knowledge, and that dividing the two is mere semantics, but sometimes a distinction is made between the two. Epistemology is the study of knowledge and its acquisition. Alethiology is specifically concerned with the nature of truth, which is only one of the areas studied by epistemologists.[ citation needed ]

Epistemology A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

Semantics is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for in reality, their denotation.

The term alethiology is rare. The ten-volume Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy mentions it only once, in the article "Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1728–77)":

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998 (ISBN 978-0415073103). Originally published in both 10 volumes of print and as a CD-ROM, in 2002 it was made available online on a subscription basis. The online version is regularly updated with new articles and revisions to existing articles. It has 1,300 contributors providing over 2,000 scholarly articles.

Part Two of the Neues Organon is the 'Alethiology or Doctrine of Truth'. Lambert’s key concern here is with the nature and function of the simple concepts that serve as the building blocks for the logical construction of true propositions. [2]

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition describes the discipline as "…an uncommon expression for the doctrine of truth, used by Sir William Hamilton in his philosophic writings when treating of the rules for the discrimination of truth and error." [3]

<i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i> Eleventh Edition 11th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet Scottish metaphysician (1788–1856)

Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet FRSE DD FSAS was a Scottish metaphysician. He is often referred to as William Stirling Hamilton of Preston, in reference to his mother, Elizabeth Stirling.

The term appears in The Banalization of Nihilism (pp. 17–18) in contrast to several other types of nihilism, especially epistemological nihilism. The views of several philosophers are then distinguished by reference to 'alethiological nihilism', 'epistemological nihilism' and the like. [4]

See also

Citations

  1. "Alethiology". Oxford Dictionaries (online). Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  2. "Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1728–77)". Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1.0 ed.). London: Routledge. 1998. ISBN   978-0415073103.[ full citation needed ]
  3. Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alethiology"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 543.
  4. Karr, Karen L. (1992). The Banalization of Nihilism. State University of New York Press. ISBN   0-7914-0833-7.

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Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial of, or lack of belief in, the reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value. Moral nihilists assert that there is no inherent morality, and that accepted moral values are abstractly contrived. Nihilism may also take epistemological, ontological, or metaphysical forms, meaning respectively that, in some aspect, knowledge is not possible, or reality does not actually exist.

Social epistemology

Social epistemology refers to a broad set of approaches that can be taken in the study of knowledge that construes human knowledge as a collective achievement. Another way of characterizing social epistemology is as the evaluation of the social dimensions of knowledge or information. It is sometimes simplified to mean a social justification of belief.

Johann Heinrich Lambert German mathematician, physicist and astronomer

Johann Heinrich Lambert was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics, philosophy, astronomy and map projections. Edward Tufte calls him and William Playfair "The two great inventors of modern graphical designs".

Eastern philosophy

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Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi German philosopher

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Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism and dualism. The term has different meanings in metaphysics, ontology, epistemology and logic.

Indian philosophy systems of thought from the ancient and medieval era Indian subcontinent

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According to divine illumination, the process of human thought needs to be aided by divine grace. It is the oldest and most influential alternative to naturalism in the theory of mind and epistemology. It was an important feature of ancient Greek philosophy, Neoplatonism, medieval philosophy, and the Illuminationist school of Islamic philosophy.

Perspectivism is the view that perception, experience, and reason change according to the viewer's relative perspective and interpretation.

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