The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) is a medical association in the United States consisting of physicians and non-physician specialists in the field of chest medicine, which includes pulmonology, critical care medicine, and sleep medicine. The group was founded in 1935.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract. The term is derived from the Latin word pulmō, pulmōnis ("lung") and the Greek suffix -λογία, -logia. Pulmonology is synonymous with pneumology, respirology and respiratory medicine.
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders. From the middle of the 20th century, research has provided increasing knowledge and answered many questions about sleep-wake functioning. The rapidly evolving field has become a recognized medical subspecialty in some countries. Dental sleep medicine also qualifies for board certification in some countries. Properly organized, minimum 12-month, postgraduate training programs are still being defined in the United States. In some countries, the sleep researchers and the physicians who treat patients may be the same people.
Manuel Dias de Abreu was a Brazilian physician and scientist, the inventor of abreugraphy, a rapid radiography of the lungs for screening tuberculosis. He is considered one of the most important Brazilian physicians, side by side with Carlos Chagas, Vital Brazil and Oswaldo Cruz.
A medical specialty, or speciality, is a branch of medical practice which is focused on a defined group of patients, diseases, skills or philosophy e.g. children (Paediatrics), cancer (oncology), laboratory medicine (pathology) and primary care. In practice, what separates a medical practitioner from other healthcare providers is the fact that, each one is qualified and able to provide comprehensive front-line or first-contact care and services in any specialty with the option of getting enhanced specialist knowledge and skills from accredited professional and academic programs. For example, after completing medical school physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist. Similar or varyingly different programs exist to train physician associates, Clinical officers and similar medical professionals.
Walter Randolph "Ranny" Chitwood, Jr. is known for his work as a cardiothoracic surgeon at the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University located in Greenville, North Carolina.
Reactive airway disease is a general term used by many physicians to label patients with symptoms similar to those of asthma. It is most commonly used when a physician is hesitant about formally diagnosing a patient with asthma, which is most prevalent in the pediatric setting for a variety of reasons. While some physicians may use RAD and asthma synonymously, this causes controversy, since RAD can not be used as a real diagnosis for physicians. An exact definition of the condition does not exist. Individuals that are typically labeled as having reactive airway disease, or RAD, generally have a history of wheezing, coughing, dyspnea, and production of sputum that may or may not be caused by asthma. Symptoms may also include, but are not limited to, coughing, shortness of breath, excess mucus in the bronchial tube, swollen mucous membrane in the bronchial tube, and/or hypersensitive bronchial tubes.
A vasoactive substance is an endogenous agent or pharmaceutical drug that has the effect of either increasing or decreasing blood pressure and/or heart rate through its vasoactivity, that is, vascular activity. By adjusting vascular compliance and vascular resistance, typically through vasodilation and vasoconstriction, it helps the body's homeostatic mechanisms to keep hemodynamics under control. For example, angiotensin, bradykinin, histamine, nitric oxide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide are important endogenous vasoactive substances. Vasoactive drug therapy is typically used when a patient has the blood pressure and heart rate monitored constantly. The dosage is typically titrated to achieve a desired effect or range of values as determined by competent clinicians.
Chest is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering chest diseases and related issues, including pulmonology, cardiology, thoracic surgery, transplantation, breathing, airway diseases, and emergency medicine. The journal was established in 1935. It is the official journal of the American College of Chest Physicians which publishes the journal. The editor-in-chief is Richard S. Irwin.
Mary Ellen Beck Wohl was chief of the respiratory diseases division at Children's Hospital Boston, and served as associate director of the general clinical research center until a few years before her death in November 2009. Since the 1960s, when she first joined the university, Wohl specialized in the respiratory diseases of children and was a leader in the field of clinical research on Cystic fibrosis. She developed a number of techniques to evaluate the function of the lungs in young children and is the author of many research papers in this field.
A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) or coin lesion is a mass in the lung smaller than 3 centimeters in diameter. It can be an incidental finding found in up to 0.2% of chest X-rays and around 1% of CT scans.
Leo Eloesser, a noted thoracic surgeon, was born in San Francisco. He spent his undergraduate years at Berkeley and in 1901 went to Germany to study medicine. He became a pioneer in the field of thoracic surgery and joined the faculty of the Stanford Medical School in 1912. A surgical procedure known as the Eloesser flap is named for him.
Francis Miller Fesmire was an American emergency physician and a nationally recognized expert in myocardial infarction. He authored numerous academic articles and assisted in the development of clinical guidelines on the standard of care in treating patients with suspected myocardial infarction by the American College of Emergency Physicians and the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology. He performed numerous research investigations in chest pain patients, reporting the usefulness of continuous 12-lead ECG monitoring, two-hour delta cardiac marker testing, and nuclear cardiac stress testing in the emergency department. The culmination of his studies was The Erlanger Chest Pain Evaluation Protocol published in the Annals of Emergency Medicine in 2002. In 2011 he published a novel Nashville Skyline that received a 5 star review by ForeWord Reviews. His most recent research involved the risk stratification of chest pain patients in the emergency department.
Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) was established when the Canadian Tuberculosis Association, now The Lung Association, recognized the need for a medical association as evidenced by the increase in attendance of both medical and non-medical members at the annual meetings.
Peter John Barnes, FRCP, FCCP, FMedSci, FRS is a British respiratory scientist and clinician, a specialist in the mechanisms and treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). He is currently Professor of Thoracic Medicine at the National Heart & Lung Institute, Head of Respiratory Medicine at Imperial College and Honorary Consultant Physician at the Royal Brompton Hospital London.
Ravi Kalhan is the director of the Asthma and COPD Program at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Northwestern Memorial Hospital.
Sir James Risdon Bennett was an English physician.
John Guyett Scadding was a British physician.
Raman Viswanathan (1899–1982) was an Indian chest physician, medical mycologist and pulmonologist, considered by many as the father of Chest Medicine in India. He was the founder director of Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, a postgraduate medical institute based in Delhi. An elected fellow of the American College of Chest Physicians, Royal College of Physicians of London, Indian National Science Academy and the Academy of Medical Sciences, United Kingdom, he was a recipient of several honors including the Forlanini Medal by Italian Tuberculosis Association and the Eugeno Morelli Prize of the National Academy of Sciences, Italy. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 1974, for his contributions to medicine.
The American Thoracic Society (ATS) is a nonprofit organization focused on improving care for pulmonary diseases, critical illnesses and sleep-related breathing disorders. It was established in 1905 as the American Sanatorium Association, and changed its name in 1938 to the American Trudeau Society. In 1960, it changed its name again to the American Thoracic Society. Originally the medical section of the American Lung Association, the Society became independently incorporated in 2000 as a 501 (c) (3) organization.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the ABIM Foundation, about unnecessary health care.