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The Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung (Carl Zeiss Foundation), located in Heidenheim an der Brenz and Jena, Germany, is the sole shareholder of the two companies Carl Zeiss AG and Schott AG. It was founded by Ernst Abbe in 1889 and named after his long-term partner Carl Zeiss. The products of these companies include the classic areas of optics and precision mechanisms, as well as glass (including optical glass), optoelectronics, and glass ceramics . The statutes of the foundation emphasize the social responsibility of the companies and the importance of a fair treatment of the employees .
Heidenheim an der Brenz is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is located near the border with Bavaria, approximately 17 km south of Aalen and 33 km north of Ulm. Heidenheim is the largest town and the seat of the district of Heidenheim, and ranks third behind Aalen and Schwäbisch Gmünd in size among the towns in the region of East Württemberg. Heidenheim is the economic center for all the communities in Heidenheim district and is the headquarters of the Voith industrial company. The town's population passed the 20,000 mark in 1925. Heidenheim collaborates with the town of Nattheim in administrative matters.
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Together with the nearby cities of Erfurt and Weimar, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of about 110,000. Jena is a centre of education and research; the Friedrich Schiller University was founded in 1558 and had 18,000 students in 2017 and the Ernst-Abbe-Fachhochschule Jena counts another 5,000 students. Furthermore, there are many institutes of the leading German research societies.
Carl Zeiss , branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, and industrial measurement and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss. Together with Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott they built a base for modern optics and manufacturing. There are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss AG located in Oberkochen with important subsidiaries in Aalen, Göttingen and Munich, and Carl Zeiss GmbH located in Jena.
In fiscal year 2007/2008 more than 30,000 people were employed by the foundation's companies and their subsidiaries, with total sales of over 4.9 billion Euros.
The Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung was founded by physicist and mathematician Ernst Abbe. He named it after his late business partner and friend Carl Zeiss, who died in 1888. The deed of foundation dates from May 19, 1889. On the 21st of May establishment of the foundation was approved by the Grand Duchy of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, making it a legal entity. Originally Abbe had intended to transfer his interests in the companies Carl Zeiss and Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Genossen to the University of Jena, feeling that he had the University to thank for his rise to wealthy entrepreneur. He established the Ministerial Fund for Scientific Purposes in 1886 for this reason; through the fund, he annually donated substantial sums anonymously to the University. In addition, he financed the construction of a University Observatory in 1889 out of his private funds.
The gift of his shares to the University, as originally intended, was not legally possible. Working with representatives of the Sachsen-Weimar state government, the idea of a foundation was formed. The Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung was founded in 1889; Ernst Abbe turned over his shares in these firms, as well as those of Roderich Zeiss, Carl Zeiss's son, to the foundation by 1891. In 1919 Otto Schott also donated his shares to the foundation, giving it the sole proprietorship of the glass works, as well. The act of incorporation lasted until 1896; an amendment governing grants to the University, followed in 1900.
In Paragraph 1 of this act of incorporation lays down the following general purposes of the foundation:
The act also includes rules of organization of the foundation, particularly regarding the foundations divisions, business operations, and questions of social and labor law. The legal establishment and enforceability of workers' rights were notable for the time, visionary, and trend-setting. The peculiarity of the original legal structure of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung was its definition as a business entity, rather than its current form as holding company. The foundation was thus the manager of both of its companies, rather than holder of ownership of independent companies. The foundation was governed by the Culture Ministry of Weimar; from there came the foundation's "commissar", who led the management of the businesses. The foundation's board was appointed by its management. The first commissar was Carl Rothe (until 1896), followed by Max Vollert who remained in office until 1911. Then Friedrich Ebsen occupied the office until 1933.
In optics and lens design, the Abbe number, also known as the V-number or constringence of a transparent material, is a measure of the material's dispersion, with high values of V indicating low dispersion. It is named after Ernst Abbe (1840–1905), the German physicist who defined it.
Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS was a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments. He was a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and other optical systems.
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was created as a duchy in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741. It was raised to a Grand duchy in 1815 by resolution of the Vienna Congress. In 1903, it officially changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Saxony, but this name was rarely used. The Grand Duchy came to an end in the German Revolution of 1918–19 with the other monarchies of the German Empire. It was succeeded by the Free State of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, which was merged into the new state of Thuringia two years later.
Schott AG is an international manufacturing group of glass and glass-ceramics. The company is headquartered in Mainz, Germany and employs approximately 15,100 people worldwide. All shares of Schott AG are solely held by the Carl Zeiss Foundation. The company reported sales worth 2.05 billion Euros in its fiscal year 2016/2017.
FC Carl Zeiss Jena is a German football club based in Jena, Thuringia. Formed in 1903 and initially associated with the Carl Zeiss AG factory, they were one of the strongest clubs in East Germany from the 1960s to the 1980s, winning the DDR-Oberliga and the FDGB-Pokal three times each and reaching the 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup Final. Since German reunification in 1990, the club have competed no higher than the second tier. For the 2017–18 season, Jena are playing in the 3. Liga after winning promotion back from the Regionalliga Nordost.
The Optical Museum Jena is a scientific-technological museum.
An Abbe refractometer is a bench-top device for the high-precision measurement of an index of refraction.
Jenoptik is a German integrated photonics group that divides its activities into three segments: Optics & Life Science, Mobility and Defense & Civil Systems.
Friedrich Otto Schott was a German chemist, glass technologist, and the inventor of borosilicate glass. He was the son of a window glass maker, Simon Schott. From 1870 to 1873 Schott studied chemical technology at the technical college in Aachen and at the universities of Würzburg and Leipzig. He attained a doctorate in glass chemistry at Friedrich Schiller University of Jena for his thesis “Contributions to the Theory and Practice of Glass Fabrication”.
Siegfried Czapski was a German physicist and optician.
Ernst Abbe Sportfeld is a sports facility in Jena, Germany. It was dedicated on August 24, 1924 and was named after entrepreneur Ernst Abbe 15 years later. The facility is in southern Jena, directly on the Saale River. The City of Jena purchased the stadium from the Ernst-Abbe-Stiftung in 1991.
August Karl Johann Valentin Köhler was a German professor and early staff member of Carl Zeiss AG in Jena, Germany. He is best known for his development of the microscopy technique of Köhler illumination, an important principle in optimizing microscopic resolution power by evenly illuminating the field of view. This invention revolutionized light microscope design and is widely used in traditional as well as modern digital imaging techniques today.
The calculation of glass properties is used to predict glass properties of interest or glass behavior under certain conditions without experimental investigation, based on past data and experience, with the intention to save time, material, financial, and environmental resources, or to gain scientific insight. It was first practised at the end of the 19th century by A. Winkelmann and O. Schott. The combination of several glass models together with other relevant functions can be used for optimization and six sigma procedures. In the form of statistical analysis glass modeling can aid with accreditation of new data, experimental procedures, and measurement institutions.
Zeiss or Zeiß may refer to:
Hans Knöll was a German physician and microbiologist. He was the director of the Central Institute of Microbiology and Experimental Therapy in Jena from 1953 to 1976, a member of the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic, and professor of bacteriology at the University of Jena. He was awarded the National Prize of the GDR in 1949 and 1952. In the late 1960s he got involved in an effort to save the historic center of Jena, protesting against the "socialist" urban development plans.
University of Applied Sciences Jena - UAS Jena was founded on 1 October 1991 as one of the first institutions of higher education of its kind in the newly founded federal states of Germany. Short periods of studying and a practical orientation complement the education at traditional universities and technical universities. Currently, the nine departments of the UAS Jena offer a lot of Bachelor and Master programs. Since the beginning of summer semester 2012, it bears the name of the entrepreneur Ernst Abbe.
Ernst Ludwig Victor Hermann Ambronn was a German botanist and microscopist.
The 20th Century Press Archives comprises about 19 million of newspaper clippings, organized in folders about persons, companies, wares, events and topics.
The German National Library of Economics is the world’s largest research infrastructure for economic literature, online as well as offline. The ZBW is a member of the Leibniz Association and has been a foundation under public law since 2007. Several times the ZBW received the international LIBER award for its innovative work in librarianship. The ZBW allows for access of millions of documents and research on economics, partnering with over 40 research institutions to create a connective Open Access portal and social web of research. Through its EconStor and EconBiz, researchers and students have accessed millions of datasets and thousands of articles. The ZBW also edits two journals: Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.