In mathematics, Casey's theorem, also known as the generalized Ptolemy's theorem, is a theorem in Euclidean geometry named after the Irish mathematician John Casey.
Let be a circle of radius . Let be (in that order) four non-intersecting circles that lie inside and tangent to it. Denote by the length of the exterior common bitangent of the circles . Then:
Note that in the degenerate case, where all four circles reduce to points, this is exactly Ptolemy's theorem.
The following proof is attributable by and its tangency point with the circle by . We will use the notation for the centers of the circles. Note that from Pythagorean theorem,to Zacharias. Denote the radius of circle
We will try to express this length in terms of the points . By the law of cosines in triangle ,
Since the circles tangent to each other:
Let be a point on the circle . According to the law of sines in triangle :
and substituting these in the formula above:
And finally, the length we seek is
We can now evaluate the left hand side, with the help of the original Ptolemy's theorem applied to the inscribed quadrilateral :
It can be seen that the four circles need not lie inside the big circle. In fact, they may be tangent to it from the outside as well. In that case, the following change should be made:
If are both tangent from the same side of (both in or both out), is the length of the exterior common tangent.
If are tangent from different sides of (one in and one out), is the length of the interior common tangent.
The converse of Casey's theorem is also true.That is, if equality holds, the circles are tangent to a common circle.
Casey's theorem and its converse can be used to prove a variety of statements in Euclidean geometry. For example, the shortest known proof 411 of Feuerbach's theorem uses the converse theorem.:
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