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The Dutch Blue Guard (Dutch : Blauwe Garde) was an elite infantry unit of the army of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Notable campaigns where they fought included the Nine Years' War (1688–97), where they distinguished themselves at the battle of the Boyne, battle of Fleurus and the siege of Limerick (1690).
The Nine Years' War (1688–97)—often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg—was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy. It was fought in Europe and the surrounding seas, North America and in India. It is sometimes considered the first global war. The conflict encompassed the Williamite war in Ireland and Jacobite risings in Scotland, where William III and James II struggled for control of England and Ireland, and a campaign in colonial North America between French and English settlers and their respective Indigenous allies, today called King William's War by Americans.
The Battle of the Boyne was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James VII and II of Scotland, England and Ireland and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II, had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688. The battle took place across the River Boyne near the town of Drogheda in the Kingdom of Ireland, modern day Republic of Ireland, and resulted in a victory for William. This turned the tide in James's failed attempt to regain the British crown and ultimately aided in ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland.
From 1688 to 1699 they served as William III of Orange's Guards regiment. Under King William III, the regiment served in England as his personal guard. After the death of William III in 1702, the regiment went back to the Netherlands and during the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1712) was the backbone of the Dutch army. In this war the Dutch army was the second largest in Europe.[ citation needed ] In particular, the Dutch pioneered the development of platoon fire, which allowed infantry formations to fire continuously - giving the Dutch an advantage in firepower over armies not using the platoon fire system. The 4th Regiment (The Blaauwe Garde, named after the color of their uniforms) distinguished itself in the battles of Blenheim (Hochstadt), Malplaquet and Oudenaarde.
William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families; acquisition of an undivided Spanish Empire by either threatened the European balance of power.
During the war of Spanish Succession, the 4th regiment, The Blue Guards, saw action on many battlefields in Europe. It was part of the Allied armies under the command of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, a British general. Armies of Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, Austria, Prussia, Hanover, Portugal, the German Empire and Savoy were united in an alliance. They fought against Louis XIV of France, who had the support of Bavaria and Cologne. The Blue Guards were not present at the Allied victory of Blenheim, but greatly distinguished themselves at the Battle of Ramillies, under the command of Colonel Wertmuller, storming two French held villages on the Allied left. They also fought bravely and suffered heavy losses at Malplaquet, fighting under the command of the Prince of Orange on the Allied left flank.
The Battle of Ramillies, fought on 23 May 1706, was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. For the Grand Alliance – Austria, England, and the Dutch Republic – the battle had followed an indecisive campaign against the Bourbon armies of King Louis XIV of France in 1705. Although the Allies had captured Barcelona that year, they had been forced to abandon their campaign on the Moselle, had stalled in the Spanish Netherlands and suffered defeat in northern Italy. Yet despite his opponents' setbacks Louis XIV wanted peace, but on reasonable terms. Because of this, as well as to maintain their momentum, the French and their allies took the offensive in 1706.
The Allied forces achieved a number of victories over the French, including at Hochstadt, Ramillies, Turin, and Oudenaerde Malplaquet. Only in 1713 began talks that eventually led to a peace agreement. In 1714, Baden in Rastatt and the peace treaties signed.
The Battle of Blenheim, fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. The overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, thus preventing the collapse of the Grand Alliance.
Field Marshal George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, KT, styled Lord George Hamilton from 1666 to 1696, was a British soldier and Scottish nobleman and the first British Army officer to be promoted to the rank of field marshal. After commanding a regiment for the cause of William of Orange during the Williamite War in Ireland, he commanded a regiment in the Low Countries during the Nine Years' War. He then led the final assault at the Battle of Blenheim attacking the village churchyard with eight battalions of men and then receiving the surrender of its French defenders during the War of the Spanish Succession. He also led the charge of fifteen infantry battalions in an extremely bloody assault on the French entrenchments at the Battle of Malplaquet. In later life he became a Lord of the Bedchamber to George I and was installed as Governor of Edinburgh Castle.
Field Marshal Richard Molesworth, 3rd Viscount Molesworth, PC, styled The Honourable Richard Molesworth from 1716 to 1726, was an Anglo-Irish military officer, politician and nobleman. He served with his regiment at the Battle of Blenheim before being appointed aide-de-camp to the Duke of Marlborough during the War of the Spanish Succession. During the Battle of Ramillies Molesworth offered Marlborough his own horse after Marlborough fell from the saddle. Molesworth then recovered his commander's charger and slipped away: by these actions he saved Marlborough's life. Molesworth went on Lieutenant of the Ordnance in Ireland and was wounded at the Battle of Preston during the Jacobite rising of 1715 before becoming Master-General of the Ordnance in Ireland and then Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Irish Army.
Kurt Christoph, Graf von Schwerin was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall, one of the leading commanders under Frederick the Great.
The Royal Scots Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1678 until 1959 when it was amalgamated with the Highland Light Infantry to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers which was later itself merged with the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and the Highlanders to form a new large regiment, the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
The Carabiniers was a cavalry regiment of the British Army. It was formed in 1685 as the Lord Lumley's Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as His Majesty's 1st Regiment of Carabiniers in 1740, the 3rd Regiment of Horse (Carabiniers) in 1756 and the 6th Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1788. After two centuries of service, including the First World War, the regiment was amalgamated with the 3rd Dragoon Guards to form the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards in 1922.
Jean Baptist, Comte d'Arco was a diplomat and Generalfeldmarschall in the service of the Electorate of Bavaria during the Great Turkish War and the War of the Spanish Succession. He should not be confused with his contemporary Johann Philipp d'Arco, who fought on the opposite (Austrian) side in the latter conflict.
General Henry Lumley was a British soldier and Governor of Jersey.
The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment was the final title of a line infantry regiment of the British Army that was originally formed in 1688. After centuries of service in many small conflicts and wars, including both the First and Second World Wars, the regiment was amalgamated with the Essex Regiment in 1958 to form the 3rd East Anglian Regiment. However, this was short-lived and again was amalgamated, in 1964, with the 1st East Anglian Regiment and 2nd East Anglian Regiment, and the Royal Leicestershire Regiment to form the present Royal Anglian Regiment.
The 37th Regiment of Foot was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in Ireland in February 1702. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 67th Regiment of Foot to become the Hampshire Regiment in 1881.
The 3rd Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as the 3rd Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1751 and the 3rd Dragoon Guards in 1765. It saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated into the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards in 1922.
The 5th Dragoon Guards was a British army cavalry regiment, officially formed in January 1686 as Shrewsbury's Regiment of Horse. Following a number of name changes, it became the 5th Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1804, before being amalgamated with The Inniskillings in 1922 to form the 5th/6th Dragoons.
The 7th Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1688 as Lord Cavendish's Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as the 7th Dragoon Guards for Princess Charlotte in 1788. It saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated with the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards, to form the 4th/7th Dragoon Guards in 1922.
The Duke of Buckingham's Light Infantry is a fictional regiment of the British Army depicted in a series of historical novels by John Mackenzie. They are nicknamed "The Sky Blues" from their sky-blue facings. They bear the chained-and-collared Swan badge of the Mandeville family superimposed over the Bugle badge of the Light Infantry as their cap badge.
Carl Rudolf was third and last Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt, army commander in Danish service and Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire.
General Charles Churchill was an English politician and army officer who served during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was a younger brother of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. His career was closely connected with his brother's and along with Marlborough's Irish Chief of Staff William Cadogan was one of his closest advisors.
The French Royal Army served the Bourbon kings beginning with Louis XIV and ending with Charles X with an interlude from 1792 until 1814, during the French Revolution and the reign of the Emperor Napoleon I. After a second, brief interlude when Napoleon returned from exile in 1815, the Royal Army was reinstated. Its service to the direct Bourbon line was finished when Charles X was overthrown in 1830 by the July Revolution.
Having been forced to sue for peace with Sweden in 1700, the Danish army was much larger than the kingdom could support. The King decided to put almost half of the army under Allied command during the War of the Spanish Succession. Twelve thousand soldiers were in 1701 made available to the Allied powers in Flanders through a treaty with the Dutch Republic and England. The Danish corps fought under Marlborough at the battles of Blenheim, Ramillies, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet suffering heavy losses. It returned to Denmark in 1713 and 1714.
William Dorrington was an English army officer of the seventeenth century, known for service in the Jacobite cause of James II. Dorrington rose to the rank of Major General in the Irish Army, fighting in the Williamite War.