Emanuel Raymond Lewis

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Emanuel Raymond Lewis
Emanuel Raymond Lewis,PhD House Librarian.png
Emanuel Raymond Lewis
Born(1928-11-30)November 30, 1928
Oakland, California, United States
DiedMay 14, 2014(2014-05-14) (aged 85)
Bethesda, Maryland, United States
Nationality American
Known for House Librarian US House of Representatives
Military Historian
Educational Psychology
Spouse(s)Eleanor G. Lewis

Emanuel Raymond Lewis (Ray Lewis) was the longest-serving and final House Librarian for the United States House of Representatives Library in the U.S. Capitol Building. He was appointed House Librarian in 1973, and served in this position until January 1995, at which time the library, along with the House Historical Office, were reorganized and placed under the new Legislative Resource Center, a division of the Office of the Clerk. [1] The House Library predated the Library of Congress, serving as the official repository of Congressional documents generated by the U.S. House of Representatives since 1792.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they comprise the legislature of the United States.

Library of Congress (de facto) national library of the United States of America

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center in Culpeper, Virginia. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, and its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol. The Library of Congress has claims to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."


Other House librarians included Calvin Clifford Chaffee, a physician and abolitionist who represented Springfield, Massachusetts as a congressman during the 34th and 35th Congresses from 1855 to 1859. Chaffee's political career suffered after he and the public learned in 1857 that his wife, Irene Sanford Emerson, owned several slaves, including the enslaved American Dred Scott. After his stint as a congressman, Chaffee served as house librarian during the 36th Congress, from until 1859 - 1861. [2] William H. Smith, the first African American to hold this position, served as librarian during the 47th Congress (1881-1883). [3]

Springfield, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts

Springfield is a city in the state of Massachusetts, United States, and the seat of Hampden County. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern Mill River. As of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 153,060. As of 2017, the estimated population was 154,758, making it the third-largest city in Massachusetts, the fourth-most populous city in New England after Boston, Worcester, and Providence, and the 12th-most populous in the Northeastern United States. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas in Massachusetts, had a population of 692,942 as of 2010.

Dred Scott Enslaved African-American man

Dred Scott was an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857, popularly known as the "Dred Scott case". Scott claimed that he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they had lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory for four years, where slavery was illegal.

In 1971 Lewis was called to testify before a subcommittee of the U.S. House Interior Committee during hearings on creating the Golden Gate National Recreation Area from land previously used as military bases. His testimony was instrumental in the preservation of over 80,000 acres of land in the San Francisco bay area for recreational use. As a historian, Dr. Lewis had extensive knowledge of military installations in this region. Dr. Lewis had previously been commissioned by the State of California State to prepare "A History of San Francisco Harbor Defense Installations: Forts Baker, Barry,Cronkite, and Funston". [4]

Golden Gate National Recreation Area United States national park in California

The Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) is a U.S. National Recreation Area protecting 82,027 acres (33,195 ha) of ecologically and historically significant landscapes surrounding the San Francisco Bay Area. Much of the park is land formerly used by the United States Army. GGNRA is managed by the National Park Service and is one of the most visited units of the National Park system in the United States, with more than 15 million visitors a year. It is also one of the largest urban parks in the world, with a size two-and-a-half times that of the consolidated city and county of San Francisco.

During the House Judiciary Committee’s impeachment hearings on President Nixon in July of 1974, Lewis provided critical historical references to guide the committee in its work, during its hearings for the impeach the President, the first impeachment hearing for a president since that of Andrew Johnson in 1869. [5]

Andrew Johnson 17th president of the United States

Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson assumed the presidency as he was vice president of the United States at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded. He favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the former slaves; he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives. He was acquitted in the Senate by one vote. Johnson's main accomplishment as president is the Alaska purchase.

Early years

Ray Lewis was the second son of Jewish Siberian immigrants, Jacob A. Lewis (born Jacob Lanis) and Rose Grossman. Jacob had immigrated to the United States, alone, at the age of 17 in 1916, during an era of antisemitic pogroms in Siberia. J.A. Lewis donated the land for the park in Hayward,California that bears his name. [6] He was later able to bring one of his brothers, but Russia restricted emigration, and he was unable to get his other family members out of Russia. Ray was born in Oakland, Alameda County, California on November 30, 1928, [7] grew up and attended high school there. He then attended the University of California at Berkeley, earning bachelor and master degrees. [8]

Siberia Geographical region in Russia

Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century.

Military service

Lewis was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the Coast Artillery Corps, but it was abolished shortly after his commission. He was then transferred to Military Intelligence, where he served from 1954 to 1956. As Lewis’ parents spoke Russian in the home, he was a fluent speaker of Russian. He was assigned the position of commander for a group of Soviet military defectors, and given the responsibility for testing security at military bases. He retired as a captain. His ashes are inurned in the Columbarium at Arlington National Cemetery.

Columbarium place for the respectful and usually public storage of cinerary urns

A columbarium is a place for the respectful and usually public storage of cinerary urns, but can also mean the nesting boxes of pigeons. The term comes from the Latin "columba" (dove) and, originally, solely referred to compartmentalized housing for doves and pigeons called a dovecote.

Arlington National Cemetery Military cemetery in the United States

Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose 624 acres (253 ha) the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. The United States Department of the Army, a component of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), controls the cemetery.

Professional career

After his military service he earned a PhD in educational psychology at the University of Oregon, with a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). He became a tenured psychology professor in the Oregon University System. Lewis was among the first psychology professors to participate in the creation of the Oregon State Board of Psychologist Examiners, and the first Oregon professor to teach on campus through television.

In 1969, working at Systems Development Corporation of Santa Monica, California – considered the world’s first computer software company – Lewis co-authored ‘‘The Educational Information Center: An Introduction,’’ a general guide to the process of establishing an educational information center.

As a postdoctoral research associate from 1969 to 1970 at the Smithsonian Institution, Lewis wrote and illustrated the book "Seacoast Fortifications of the United States: An Introductory History" published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 1970. This followed a previous book; "The Development of American Seacoast Defenses". He continued to publish widely in military and naval-related journals.


Journal articles

Related Research Articles

Fort Slocum United States Army base in New York

Fort Slocum, New York was a US military post which occupied Davids' Island in the western end of Long Island Sound in the city of New Rochelle, New York from 1867 to 1965. The fort was named for Major General Henry W. Slocum, a Union corps commander in the American Civil War.

Camp Hero State Park

Camp Hero State Park is a 754-acre (3.05 km2) state park located on Montauk Point, New York. The park occupies a portion of the former Montauk Air Force Station.

Fort Mott (New Jersey) park in New Jersey

Fort Mott, located in Pennsville, Salem County, New Jersey, was part of the Harbor Defenses of the Delaware, a three-fort defense system designed for the Delaware River during the postbellum and Endicott program modernization periods following the American Civil War and in the 1890s. The other two forts in the system were Fort Delaware on Pea Patch Island and Fort DuPont in Delaware City, Delaware.

Fort Funston former harbor defense installation in San Francisco

Fort Funston is a former harbor defense installation located in the southwestern corner of San Francisco. Formerly known as the Lake Merced Military Reservation, the fort is now a protected area within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA). It was named in honor of Frederick N. Funston (1865–1917), a Major General in the United States Army with strong connections to San Francisco, and included several artillery batteries. The fort is located on Skyline Boulevard at John Muir Drive, west of Lake Merced.

Sagamore Hill Military Reservation

Sagamore Hill Military Reservation was a coastal defense site located in Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts. Today, the site is the location of Scusset Beach State Reservation.

Fort Getty

Fort Getty is a town park in Jamestown, Rhode Island, on Conanicut Island in Narragansett Bay. From 1900 through World War II it was a military fort. The Town of Jamestown later received the property and opened it as a park, primarily a campground.

Barneys Joy Point Military Reservation

Barneys Joy Point Military Reservation was a World War II coastal defense site located in Dartmouth, Massachusetts.

Brewster Islands Military Reservation

Brewster Islands Military Reservation was a coastal defense site located on Great Brewster Island and Outer Brewster Island in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts as part of the Harbor Defenses of Boston.

Calf Island Military Reservation

Calf Island Military Reservation was a World War II coastal defense site located on Calf Island in Hull, Massachusetts.

Elizabeth Islands Military Reservation

Elizabeth Islands Military Reservation was a World War II coastal defense site located on Cuttyhunk Island and Nashawena Island in the town of Gosnold, Massachusetts.

Fourth Cliff Military Reservation

Fourth Cliff Military Reservation was a World War II coastal defense site located near Scituate, Massachusetts, USA. It is now a recreation area for Hanscom Air Force Base.

Mishaum Point Military Reservation

Mishaum Point Military Reservation was a coastal defense site located in Dartmouth, Massachusetts as part of the Harbor Defenses of New Bedford.

Salisbury Beach Military Reservation

Salisbury Beach Military Reservation was a coastal defense site located in Salisbury, Massachusetts.

Fort Dawes

Fort Dawes was a World War II Coast Artillery fort located on Deer Island in Winthrop/Boston, Massachusetts. It was part of the Harbor Defenses of Boston.

Fort Cronkhite

Fort Cronkhite is one of the components of California's Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Today part of the National Park Service, Fort Cronkhite is a former US Army post that served as part of the coastal artillery defenses of the San Francisco Bay Area during World War II. The soldiers at Cronkhite manned gun batteries, radar sites, and other fortifications on the high ridges overlooking the fort.

14-inch gun M1907

The 14-inch Gun M1907 (356 mm) and its variants the M1907MI, M1909, and M1910 were large coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1895 and 1945. They were operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps. Most were installed on single gun disappearing carriages; the only installation with four guns in twin turrets was built at the unique Fort Drum in Manila Bay, Philippines. All of the weapons not in the Philippines were scrapped during World War II.

Butler Point Military Reservation

Butler Point Military Reservation was a coastal defense site located in Marion, Massachusetts as part of the defenses of the Cape Cod Canal.

Oaks Inn Military Reservation former coastal defense site located in Misquamicut, Rhode Island

Oak's Inn Military Reservation was a coastal defense site located in Misquamicut, Rhode Island in the town of Westerly, overlooking Misquamicut State Beach. It was part of the Harbor Defenses of Long Island Sound. Today, the site is a residential development.

The 27th Coast Artillery Battalion was a Coast Artillery battalion in the United States Army. It was the garrison of the Harbor Defenses of Bermuda, part of the US Army's Bermuda Base Command, from February 1942 through June 1944. A predecessor unit in World War I was the 27th Artillery , which existed briefly from October through December 1918.

A military caretaker or caretaker detachment is a group of one or more personnel assigned to maintain for future use a military base, fortification, or other facility that is ungarrisoned but not abandoned. Naval reserve fleets and military aircraft in long-term storage are also maintained by caretakers. Whether the personnel are military or civilian varies by country, branch of service, and time period.


  1. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives
  2. How Overdue Books Caused the Civil War
  3. The Legislative Resource Center (LRC)
  4. A history of San Francisco harbor defense installations: Forts Baker, Barry, Cronkhite, and Funston. January 1, 1965 by Emanuel Raymond Lewis
  5. Congressional Record, May 28, 2014, 113th Congress, 2nd Session, Issue: Vol. 160, No. 81 IN MEMORY OF EMANUEL RAYMOND LEWIS, LIBRARIAN EMERITUS OF THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
  6. Obituary, EMANUEL R. LEWIS Washington Post, June 2014
  7. Differential Effects of Duration of Prior Learning Upon Subsequent Problem Solving, by Emanuel Raymond Lewis
  8. Reward and Punishment Orientations: Two Approaches to a Concept Learning Task by Emanuel Raymond Lewis
  9. Popper, by Emanuel Raymond Lewis
  10. Mediation in the Changing Patterns of Bargaining by Emanuel Raymond Lewis
  11. Journalism Handbook, Grade 9 by S Harshbarger and ER Lewis
  12. Tentative Course of Study, Beginning Journalism I: Grade 8 by Emanuel Raymond Lewis
  13. The Development of American Seacoast Defenses by Emanuel Raymond Lewis
  14. American Seacoast Fortifications: A Developmental History by Emanuel Raymond Lewis
  15. The Educational Information Center: An Introduction by C. Neil Sherman, E. Raymond Lewis and Judith Wanger
  16. Seacoast Fortifications of the United States by Emanuel Raymond Lewis