|First Aceh Expedition|
General J.H.R. Köhler killed in Mesigit
|Commanders and leaders|
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The First Aceh Expedition was a punitive expedition of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army against Aceh.
Early in 1873, the American Consul in Singapore had discussions with an Achenese emissary about a possible Acehnese-American treaty, which the Dutch saw as justification for intervention. In March 1873, the Dutch bombed the Acehnese capital Banda Aceh (Kutaraja) and in April they landed 3,000 troops led by Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler. Having misjudged their Acehnese opposition, the Dutch were forced to withdraw losing Köhler and eighty men. They then established a blockade and Acehnese troops (estimates of whom range from 10,000 to 100,000) prepared for battle.
Aceh is the westernmost province of Indonesia. It is located on the northern end of Sumatra, with Banda Aceh being its capital and largest city. Granted a special autonomous status, Aceh is a religiously conservative territory and the only Indonesian province practicing Sharia law officially. There are ten indigenous ethnic groups in this region, the largest being the Acehnese people, accounting for approximately 80% to 90% of the region's population.
The Free Aceh Movement was a separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region of Sumatra from Indonesia. GAM fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh insurgency from 1976 to 2005, during which over 15,000 lives are believed to have been lost.
The Aceh War, also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873. The war was part of a series of conflicts in the late 19th century that consolidated Dutch rule over modern-day Indonesia.
Banda Aceh is the capital and largest city in the province of Aceh, Indonesia. It is located on the island of Sumatra and has an elevation of 35 meters. The city covers an area of 61.4 square kilometres and had a population of 223,446 people at the 2010 Census, rising to 250,227 at the 2015 Census; the latest official estimate is 268,148. Banda Aceh is located on the northwestern tip of Indonesia at the mouth of the Aceh River.
Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz was a Dutch military officer who was appointed governor general of the Dutch East Indies in 1904. He had become famous years before by bringing to an end to the long Aceh War.
A suicide weapon is a weapon or object that is used in a suicide attack, typically based on explosives.
The klewang or kelewang is a class of bladed weapon between the sword and machete originating in Indonesia but also found in Malaysia.
Teuku Umar was a leader of a guerrilla campaign against the Dutch in Aceh during the Aceh War. He fell when Dutch troops launched a surprise attack in Meulaboh. His body was buried in the Mugo area. After Teuku Umar's death, his wife Cut Nyak Dhien continued to lead the guerrillas against the Dutch. He was later made a Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia.
The Sultanate of Aceh, officially the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam, was a Sultanate centered in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh. It was a major regional power in the 16th and 17th centuries, before experiencing a long period of decline. Its capital was Kutaraja, the present-day Banda Aceh.
Iskandar Muda was the twelfth Sulṭān of Acèh Darussalam, under whom the sultanate achieved its greatest territorial extent, and was the strongest power and wealthiest state in the western Indonesian archipelago and the Strait of Malacca. "Iskandar Muda" literally means "young Alexander," and his conquests were often compared to those of Alexander the Great. In addition to his notable conquests, during his reign, Aceh became known as an international centre of Islamic learning and trade.
Tjoet Nja Meuthia, also known as Tjut Meutia, was an Indonesian national heroine.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque is a Mosque located in the center of Banda Aceh city, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The Baiturrahman Grand Mosque is a symbol of religion, culture, spirit, strength, struggle and nationalism of the Acehnese people. The mosque is a landmark of Banda Aceh and has survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
Tjoet Nja' Dhien is a 1988 Indonesian film directed by Eros Djarot and starring Piet Burnama, Christine Hakim, Rudy Wowor, and Slamet Rahardjo. Based on the life's story of female Acehnese guerrilla leader Cut Nyak Dhien, it focuses on the six-year period between her second husband, Teuku Umar's death and her capture by the Dutch colonial army. Tjoet Nja' Dhien was released to critical acclaim, winning 9 Citra Awards, and was screened at the Semaine de la Critique du Festival de Cannes. It also became Indonesia's submission to the 62nd Academy Awards for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
The Acehnese language is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by Acehnese people natively in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. This language is also spoken by Acehnese descendants in some parts of Malaysia like Yan, in Kedah.
The Ottoman expedition to Aceh started from around 1565 when the Ottoman Empire endeavoured to support the Aceh Sultanate in its fight against the Portuguese Empire in Malacca. The expedition followed an envoy sent by the Acehnese Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahhar (1539–71) to Suleiman the Magnificent in 1564, and possibly as early as 1562, requesting Ottoman support against the Portuguese.
Cut Nyak Dhien or Tjoet Nja' Dhien was a leader of the Acehnese guerrilla forces during the Aceh War. Following the death of her husband Teuku Umar, she led guerrilla actions against the Dutch for 25 years. She was posthumously awarded the title of National Hero of Indonesia on May 2, 1964 by the Indonesian government.
The Dutch dispatched a second expedition in Aceh in late 1873 during the Aceh War following the failed First Aceh Expedition of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army to Aceh.
Muhamad Saman, better known as Teungku Chik di Tiro, was an Acehnese guerrilla fighter. On 6 November 1973 he was declared a National Hero of Indonesia.
Teungku Nyak Arif was an Acehnese nationalist and National Hero of Indonesia. He has been given the nickname Rencong of Aceh, after the traditional Acehnese weapon, for his bravery.
Sultan Alauddin Mahmud Syah II was the thirty-fourth sultan of Aceh in northern Sumatra. He reigned from 1870 to 1874 and was the last sultan to rule Aceh before the colonial invasion.
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