|Fort de Nogent|
|Part of Thiers fortifications of Paris|
|Owner|| Ministry of Defense|
French Foreign Legion
|Condition||Occupied by Ministry of Defense|
|Battles/wars||Siege of Paris (1870–1871)|
The Fort de Nogent or Fort de Nogent-sur-Marne is a French fortification forming part of the fortifications of Paris. Despite its name, the fort is located in Fontenay-sous-Bois; the name is derived from Nogent-sur-Marne the town the fort was planned to protect. The fort is now occupied by the recruitment organization for the French Foreign Legion.
The fortifications of Paris in the 19th and 20th centuries comprise:
Fontenay-sous-Bois is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.3 km (5.8 mi) from the center of Paris.
Nogent-sur-Marne is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.6 km (6.6 mi) from the centre of Paris. Nogent-sur-Marne is a sous-préfecture of the Val-de-Marne département, being the seat of the Arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Marne.
The Fort de Nogent is one of seventeen forts built to protect Paris at the instigation in 1840 Adolphe Thiers, prime minister of the government of Louis-Philippe. Work began in 1841, with completion in 1848, under the direction of Guillaume Dode de la Brunerie.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris is one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers was a French statesman and historian. He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic.
Guillaume Dode de la Brunerie was a Marshal of France. On February 12, 1812, he married the daughter of Marshal Pérignon, Agathe-Virginie.
The fort is surrounded by a pentagonal bastioned rampart 200 metres (660 ft) on a side, in the manner of Vauban.
During the Siege of Paris (1870–1871), the fort was commanded by Commandant Pistoulet, with artillery under the command of Chef d'Escadron David, engineers commanded by Chef de Bataillon Revin and medical services commanded by Doctor-Major Aude of the Navy. The infantry was composed of the 31st, 61st and 77th companies of line infantry (590 men and 8 officers, and the 11th battalion and two companies of the 13th battalion of mobile forces of the Seine, with 114 men and 30 officers. All of the mobile forces were sent north to Saint-Denis on 22 September. Artillery was composed of the 2nd battery bis of the 4th Regiment with 205 men and two officers, engineers with 40 men and two officers, 18 supply personnel, and three doctors and three attendants.
Line infantry was the type of infantry that composed the basis of European land armies from the middle of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century. For both battle and parade drill, it consisted of two to four ranks of foot soldiers drawn up side by side in rigid alignment, and thereby maximizing the effect of their firepower. By extension, the term came to be applied to the regular regiments "of the line" as opposed to Foot Guards, light infantry, skirmishers, militia, support personnel, plus some other special categories of infantry not focused on heavy front line combat.
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km (5.8 mi) from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis.
In December 1870, the Prussian guns bombarded the fort. The fort held out until it was given up to the Prussians at the French surrender on 26 January 1871.
On 23, 24 and 25 August 1944 there was violent combat between German troops and units of the French Resistance. Thirty Fontenaysiens were killed, and the Germans withdrew from the fortafter shelling the train depot.
The French Resistance was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War. Resistance cells were small groups of armed men and women, who, in addition to their guerrilla warfare activities, were also publishers of underground newspapers, providers of first-hand intelligence information, and maintainers of escape networks that helped Allied soldiers and airmen trapped behind enemy lines. The men and women of the Resistance came from all economic levels and political leanings of French society, including émigrés, academics, students, aristocrats, conservative Roman Catholics, and also citizens from the ranks of liberals, anarchists and communists.
During the Algerian War the fort became an internment center. In 1961 nearly 200 officers, including those of the 1st REP (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment), who participated in the Algiers putsch were placed under "fortress arrest." Their detainment lasted for almost two months. The leadership of the Regiment was arrested and tried but the non-commissioned officers, corporals and Legionnaires were assigned to other Foreign Legion formations. They left the barracks singing the song "Non, je ne regrette rien", which has now become part of the French Foreign Legion heritage and is sung when they are on parade.
The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.
The 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment was an airborne regiment of the French Foreign Legion which dated its origins to 1948. The regiment fought in the First Indochina War as the three-time reconstituted 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion, the Suez Crisis and Algerian War, but was dissolved along with the 10th Parachute Division and 25th Parachute Division following the generals' putsch against part of the French government in 1961.
The Algiers putsch, also known as the Generals' putsch, was a failed coup d'état to press French President Charles de Gaulle not to abandon French Algeria, along with French people and pro-French Arabs living there. Organised in French Algeria by retired French army generals Maurice Challe, Edmond Jouhaud, André Zeller and Raoul Salan, it took place from the afternoon of 21 April to 26 April 1961 in the midst of the Algerian War (1954–62).
In 1962 the French Foreign Legion placed a detachment at the fort. Today the fort houses a Foreign Legion recruitment center.
Since the winter of 2006-2007 the fort has accommodated a winter Salvation Army shelter.
The Siege of Maubeuge took place from 24 August – 7 September 1914, at le camp retranché de Maubeuge the start of World War I on the Western Front. The Entrenched Camp blocked the railway from Thionville to Luxembourg, which had also been cut by the demolition of the rail bridge over the Meuse at Namur in Belgium to the north. Until Maubeuge fell, the German armies in the north could use only the single-track line from Trier to Liège, Brussels, Valenciennes and Cambrai, which could accommodate a maximum of forty trains a day.
The Russian Expeditionary Force was a World War I military force sent to France by the Russian Empire. In 1915 the French requested that Russian troops be sent to fight alongside their own army on the Western Front. Initially they asked for 300,000 men, an unrealistically high figure, probably based on assumptions about Russia's 'unlimited' reserves. General Mikhail Alekseev, the Imperial Chief of Staff, was opposed to sending any Russian troops, although Nicholas II finally agreed to send a unit of brigade strength. The First Russian Special Brigade finally landed at Marseille in April 1916. A Second Special Brigade was also sent to serve alongside other Allied formations on the Salonika Front in northern Greece. In France, the First Brigade participated in the Nivelle Offensive, however with news of the Russian Revolution of 1917 affecting the demoralisation within the French Army following the failure of that offensive, the 1st and 3rd Brigades participated in the wave of mutinies spreading across France. The First Brigade was finally disbanded before the end of the year. However, the Honorary Russian Legion of the 1st Moroccan Division continued to maintain a Russian presence in the west and, indeed in the First World War itself, until the Armistice of 11 November 1918.
The 1st Foreign Regiment and the 2nd Foreign are the original and most senior founding regiments of the French Foreign Legion.
The 1st Foreign Engineer Regiment is one of two combat engineer regiments in the French Foreign Legion, and part of the 6th Light Armoured Brigade. Currently stationed at Quartier General Rollet in Laudun-l'Ardoise, Gard, southern France.
The 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion. The regiment is one of two mechanized infantry regiments of the 6th Light Armoured Brigade.
The Tonkin Expeditionary Corps was an important French military command based in northern Vietnam (Tonkin) from June 1883 to April 1886. The expeditionary corps fought the Tonkin Campaign (1883–86) taking part in campaigns against the Black Flag Army and the Chinese Yunnan and Guangxi Armies during the Sino-French War and the period of undeclared hostilities that preceded it, and in important operations against Vietnamese guerrilla bands during the subsequent 'Pacification of Tonkin'.
The Siege of Toul was the siege of the fortified French town of Toul from 16 August to 23 September 1870 by Prussian, Bavarian and Württemberg forces during the Franco-Prussian War. Toul controlled a railway line leading to Germany and it was vital for the Germans to secure it to resupply and reinforce their armies in northern France.
Pierre Côme André Segrétain was a French infantry and airborne officer of the French Army and French Foreign Legion who fought in World War II and the First Indochina War, primarily in Foreign Legion units. He received command of the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion (1er BEP) when the battalion was created in 1948 and led for two years in Indochina before being fatally wounded while leading his battalion during the Battle of Route Coloniale 4.
Raoul Charles Magrin-Vernerey, other known as Ralph Monclar born 7 February 1892, was a French officer and 2nd Inspector of the Foreign Legion who fought in World War I, World War II within the ranks of the Free French Forces and led the French Battalion in the Korean War. He was also one of the first senior officers to respond to the Appeal of 18 June.
The Fort de Châtillon was a fortification located about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Paris in the communes of Châtillon-sous-Bagneux and Fontenay-aux-Roses. It was built in 1874 and was razed beginning in 1957, making way for expansion of the French nuclear research facility at Fontenay-aux-Roses.
The Foreign Legion Detachment in Mayotte is a detachment of the French Foreign Legion based on the island of Mayotte, near Madagascar. It is the smallest operational unit of the French Foreign Legion. The main role of the detachment is to maintain a French presence in the region, enabling the French armed forces to quickly react to events in the Indian Ocean and the east coast of Africa.
The 6th Foreign Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1955.
The Marching Regimentof the French Foreign Legion (RMLE) was a French military unit that fought in World War I and World War II. Initially composed of marching regiments from the 1st Foreign Regiment of Sidi Bel Abbes and the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment of Saida, Algeria, it re-formed as the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment.
The 2nd Marching Regiment of the 1st Foreign Regiment, was a French Military unit of the Legion which formed the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion (R.M.L.E) and existed ephemerally from end of 1914 to 1915.
The 3rd Marching Regiment of the 1st Foreign Regiment, was a French Military unit of the Legion which formed the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion (R.M.L.E) and existed ephemerally from end of 1914 to 1915.
Bernard Goupil was a Général de division of the French Army and Commandant of the French Foreign Legion.
Bernard Colcomb is a Général of the French Army and Commandant of the French Foreign Legion.
The Marching Regiments of Foreign Volunteers were created at the corps of the French Foreign Legion at Le Barcarès, on October 1939 and May 1940. They recruited in principal from the Foreign Workers Companies, essentially Spaniards from the Retirada, whom represented 1/3 of formations, while the Foreign Jews who enlisted voluntarily constituted 40% of formations. These regiments were not well equipped and other units referred to them by derision as "twine regiments". The 21e, 22e and 23e RMVE, did not have an active central corps, nor did they have Legion reserve back-ups, not even "cadres" from Sidi bel-Abbès, only the exception of a couple of Legion Officers. To differentiate themselves, the traditional colors were inverted and were "Red & Green". Without Legion traditions, they fought and upheld nevertheless the same conviction. While not being well equipped, these three regiments as well as the 12th Foreign Infantry Regiment 12e REI deserved the designation of "twine regiments", since they were the works of miracles at the gates of Paris, in Picardy, in the Ardennes and in Lorraine.