Fort de Nogent

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Fort de Nogent
Part of Thiers fortifications of Paris
Fontenay-sous-Bois, France
Fort de Nogent entree.jpg
Paris and inner ring.svg
Red pog.svg
Fort de Nogent
Coordinates 48°50′41″N2°28′54″E / 48.84479°N 2.4818°E / 48.84479; 2.4818 Coordinates: 48°50′41″N2°28′54″E / 48.84479°N 2.4818°E / 48.84479; 2.4818
Type Fort
Site information
Owner Ministry of Defense
French Foreign Legion
Controlled byFlag of France.svg  France
Open to
the public
Special occasions
Condition Occupied by Ministry of Defense
Site history
Built 1841 (1841)
Battles/wars Siege of Paris (1870–1871)
German post card showing the fortifications of Paris Plan fortifications place de Paris.JPG
German post card showing the fortifications of Paris

The Fort de Nogent or Fort de Nogent-sur-Marne is a French fortification forming part of the fortifications of Paris. Despite its name, the fort is located in Fontenay-sous-Bois; the name is derived from Nogent-sur-Marne the town the fort was planned to protect. The fort is now occupied by the recruitment organization for the French Foreign Legion.

Fortifications of Paris in the 19th and 20th centuries List of forts in and around Paris, France

The fortifications of Paris in the 19th and 20th centuries comprise:

Fontenay-sous-Bois Commune in Île-de-France, France

Fontenay-sous-Bois is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.3 km (5.8 mi) from the center of Paris.

Nogent-sur-Marne Subprefecture and commune in Île-de-France, France

Nogent-sur-Marne is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.6 km (6.6 mi) from the centre of Paris. Nogent-sur-Marne is a sous-préfecture of the Val-de-Marne département, being the seat of the Arrondissement of Nogent-sur-Marne.

Contents

Construction

The Fort de Nogent is one of seventeen forts built to protect Paris at the instigation in 1840 Adolphe Thiers, prime minister of the government of Louis-Philippe. Work began in 1841, with completion in 1848, under the direction of Guillaume Dode de la Brunerie.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris is one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Adolphe Thiers President of the French Republic

Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers was a French statesman and historian. He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic.

Guillaume Dode de la Brunerie Marshal of France

Guillaume Dode de la Brunerie was a Marshal of France. On February 12, 1812, he married the daughter of Marshal Pérignon, Agathe-Virginie.

The fort is surrounded by a pentagonal bastioned rampart 200 metres (660 ft) on a side, in the manner of Vauban.

Siege of 1870

During the Siege of Paris (1870–1871), the fort was commanded by Commandant Pistoulet, with artillery under the command of Chef d'Escadron David, engineers commanded by Chef de Bataillon Revin and medical services commanded by Doctor-Major Aude of the Navy. The infantry was composed of the 31st, 61st and 77th companies of line infantry (590 men and 8 officers, and the 11th battalion and two companies of the 13th battalion of mobile forces of the Seine, with 114 men and 30 officers. All of the mobile forces were sent north to Saint-Denis on 22 September. Artillery was composed of the 2nd battery bis of the 4th Regiment with 205 men and two officers, engineers with 40 men and two officers, 18 supply personnel, and three doctors and three attendants.

Line infantry type of infantry

Line infantry was the type of infantry that composed the basis of European land armies from the middle of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century. For both battle and parade drill, it consisted of two to four ranks of foot soldiers drawn up side by side in rigid alignment, and thereby maximizing the effect of their firepower. By extension, the term came to be applied to the regular regiments "of the line" as opposed to Foot Guards, light infantry, skirmishers, militia, support personnel, plus some other special categories of infantry not focused on heavy front line combat.

Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis Subprefecture and commune in Île-de-France, France

Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km (5.8 mi) from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis.

In December 1870, the Prussian guns bombarded the fort. The fort held out until it was given up to the Prussians at the French surrender on 26 January 1871.

1944

On 23, 24 and 25 August 1944 there was violent combat between German troops and units of the French Resistance. Thirty Fontenaysiens were killed, and the Germans withdrew from the fort [1] after shelling the train depot.

French Resistance collection of French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime

The French Resistance was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War. Resistance cells were small groups of armed men and women, who, in addition to their guerrilla warfare activities, were also publishers of underground newspapers, providers of first-hand intelligence information, and maintainers of escape networks that helped Allied soldiers and airmen trapped behind enemy lines. The men and women of the Resistance came from all economic levels and political leanings of French society, including émigrés, academics, students, aristocrats, conservative Roman Catholics, and also citizens from the ranks of liberals, anarchists and communists.

Internment center

During the Algerian War the fort became an internment center. In 1961 nearly 200 officers, including those of the 1st REP (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment), who participated in the Algiers putsch were placed under "fortress arrest." Their detainment lasted for almost two months. The leadership of the Regiment was arrested and tried but the non-commissioned officers, corporals and Legionnaires were assigned to other Foreign Legion formations. They left the barracks singing the song "Non, je ne regrette rien", which has now become part of the French Foreign Legion heritage and is sung when they are on parade. [2]

Algerian War war between France and the Algerian independence movement from 1954 to 1962

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.

1st Foreign Parachute Regiment regiment

The 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment was an airborne regiment of the French Foreign Legion which dated its origins to 1948. The regiment fought in the First Indochina War as the three-time reconstituted 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion, the Suez Crisis and Algerian War, but was dissolved along with the 10th Parachute Division and 25th Parachute Division following the generals' putsch against part of the French government in 1961.

Algiers putsch of 1961

The Algiers putsch, also known as the Generals' putsch, was a failed coup d'état to press French President Charles de Gaulle not to abandon French Algeria, along with French people and pro-French Arabs living there. Organised in French Algeria by retired French army generals Maurice Challe, Edmond Jouhaud, André Zeller and Raoul Salan, it took place from the afternoon of 21 April to 26 April 1961 in the midst of the Algerian War (1954–62).

Present use

Foreign Legion

In 1962 the French Foreign Legion placed a detachment at the fort. Today the fort houses a Foreign Legion recruitment center. [3]

Salvation Army

Since the winter of 2006-2007 the fort has accommodated a winter Salvation Army shelter. [4]

Cour d'honneur Fort de Nogent cour.jpg
Cour d'honneur

See also

Sources

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Récit de la libération de Fontenay sous bois par un témoin
  2. While the officers were interned, they sang a variant of the song using lyrics relevant to their situation, which was recorded and is now available on Utube.
  3. "Fort de Nogent, Fontenay-sous-Bois" (in French). Val de Marne. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  4. Nogent Citoyen, 21 décembre 2009