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The IBM Institute for Business Value is a business research organization that focuses on managerial and economic issues faced by companies and governments around the world. It has offices in China, India, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, South Africa and the United States, and it publishes between 35 and 50 major studies each year.
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
The IBM Institute for Business Value grew out of earlier research programs at IBM that were part of the firm’s management consulting organization. These predecessors included the IBM Institute for Knowledge Management (IKM) and the IBM e-business Innovation Institute (ebII). The IKM, founded in 1999, was a membership consortium of private and public organizations that conducted research on the managerial and organizational aspects of knowledge management. The ebII was formed in 2000 with a small group of IBM consultants doing research into the impact of current and future technologies on business issues across a wide range of industries. In August 2001, IBM acquired Mainspring, a small strategy consulting firm headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and in October combined its research capabilities with the IKM and ebII to create the IBM Institute for Business Value (IBV).
Management consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance. Organizations may draw upon the services of management consultants for a number of reasons, including gaining external advice and access to the consultants' specialized expertise.
Online Business or e-business is any kind of business or commercial transaction that includes sharing information across the internet. Commerce constitutes the exchange of products and services between businesses, groups and individuals and can be seen as one of the essential activities of any business. Electronic commerce focuses on the use of ICT to enable the external activities and relationships of the business with individuals, groups and other businesses, while e-business refers to business with help of the internet. The term "e-business" was coined by IBM's marketing and Internet team in 1996.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
From its early years the IBV focused on topics relevant to senior executives. It began publishing studies on business trends and management issues in such core industries as banking, automotive, and telecommunications. Most of the studies were global in scope, although a few focused on issues specific to a region, such as Western Europe or North America. Additionally, the IBV began to conduct research concerning cross-industry issues, such as customer relationship management (CRM).
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is commonly used, there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.
In 2002, IBM acquired PriceWaterhouseCoopers Consulting (PwCC), the consulting arm of PriceWaterhouseCoopers, thereby increasing IBM’s consulting population by some 30,000 employees and augmenting its expertise in the business issues of over a dozen industries and key functions, such as financial management, and supply chain management. The IBV became part of the merged consulting organization, now known as IBM Global Business Services (GBS).
Managerial finance is the branch of finance that concerns itself with the managerial significance of finance techniques. It is focused on assessment rather than technique.
The inclusion of PwCC into IBM led to important changes in the IBV. First, the number of full-time consultants working at the IBV grew from about 35 in 2002 to about 55 by 2008 and with the addition of specialized groups in Japan, India and China to about 80 in 2011. Second, many came in with a combination of advanced academic research degrees and consulting experience. Third, the staff became more international, although two main offices were established: one in Cambridge, Massachusetts and the other in Amsterdam. Studies were now organized more expansively by industry and management function (e.g., finance, HR). One type of study brought over from PwCC was the “future agenda” that explored the economic and business trends affecting an industry over a 5 to 10 year period. Within several years, the IBV had published nearly a dozen of such studies. The staff also published books dealing with such issues as knowledge management, the electronics industry, and the role of IT in myriad American industries.
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of approximately 8.1 million.
Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation. It refers to a multidisciplinary approach to achieving organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age.
The IBV continues to conduct primary research, publish white papers, present research findings at industry conferences, and write bylined articles for trade and business publications. Global activities continue to expand through IBV satellite programs in China, Japan, India and South Africa. A high profile collaboration, begun in 2001, with the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) produces a ranking of scores of nations in their use of IT, called the E-Readiness Ranking. Published annually in the spring, by 2008 it was the longest-running review of economic, political, social and technological issues affecting countries around the world
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
E-readiness refers to a country's capacity and state of preparedness to participate in the electronic world. The state of maturity is commonly measured by the country's information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and the ability of its government and citizens to utilize the positive impacts of ICT for sustainable development.
The IBV also has continued and broadened a series of CxO studies originated by PwCC. The CxO studies conduct extensive (often involving over 1,000 participants from across the world and from a wide range of sectors) in-office surveys and interviews with senior executives around the globe – CEOs,Chief Information Officers (CIOs), Chief Financial Officers (CFOs), Chief Human Resource Officers (CHROs), Chief Supply Chain Officers (CSCOs) and Chief Marketing Officers (CMOs), – publishing the results every two years for CEOs and CIOs in May and every four years for CFOs, CHROs, CSCOs and CMOs in October.
The chief financial officer (CFO) is the officer of a company that has primary responsibility for managing the company's finances, including financial planning, management of financial risks, record-keeping, and financial reporting. In some sectors, the CFO is also responsible for analysis of data. Some CFOs have the title CFOO for chief financial and operating officer. In the United Kingdom, the typical term for a CFO is finance director (FD). The CFO typically reports to the chief executive officer (CEO) and the board of directors and may additionally have a seat on the board. The CFO supervises the finance unit and is the chief financial spokesperson for the organization. The CFO directly assists the chief operating officer (COO) on all strategic and tactical matters relating to budget management, cost–benefit analysis, forecasting needs, and securing of new funding.
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom. PwC ranks as the largest professional services firm in the world after Deloitte, and is one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, EY and KPMG.
Chief information officer (CIO), chief digital information officer (CDIO) or information technology (IT) director, is a job title commonly given to the most senior executive in an enterprise who works for the traditional information technology and computer systems that support enterprise goals.
The New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University (ILR) is an industrial relations school at Cornell University, located in Ithaca, New York, United States. The School has six academic departments which include: Economics, Human Resource Management, International and Comparative Labor, Labor Relations, Organizational Behavior; and Social Statistics.
IBM Services is the professional services arm of IBM, made up of business, technology and industry experts who apply advanced technology and help clients design, build and run businesses. It includes two divisions: IBM Global Business Services (GBS) and IBM Global Technology Services (GTS).
A consulting or consultancy firm is a business of one or more experts (consultants) that provides professional feedback to an individual or an organization for a fee. The types of firms vary, such as technology and advertising firms.
The Desautels Faculty of Management is a faculty of McGill University. The faculty offers a range of undergraduate and graduate-level business programs including the Bachelor of Commerce, Master of Business Administration, and Doctor of Philosophy in management degrees and maintains teaching facilities in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and Tokyo, Japan. The Faculty of Management also offers a joint MD/MBA program with the Faculty of Medicine and a joint MBA/Law program with the Faculty of Law.
A chief human resources officer (CHRO) or chief people officer (CPO) is a corporate officer who oversees all aspects of human resource management and industrial relations policies, practices and operations for an organization. Similar job titles include: chief people officer, chief personnel officer, executive vice president of human resources and senior vice president of human resources. Roles and responsibilities of a typical CHRO can be categorized as follows: workforce strategist, organizational and performance conductor, HR service delivery owner, compliance and governance regulator, and coach and adviser to the senior leadership team and the board of directors. CHROs may also be involved in board member selection and orientation, executive compensation, and succession planning. In addition, functions such as communications, facilities, public relations and related areas may fall within the scope of the CHRO role. Increasingly, CHROs report directly to chief executive officers and are members of the most senior-level committees of a company.
Sydenham Institute of Management Studies, Research and Entrepreneurship Education (SIMSREE) is a management institute under the aegis of the University of Mumbai. It was named after the then-governor of Bombay Lord Sydenham of Combe in 1913.
Outsourcing relationship management (ORM) is the business discipline widely adopted by companies and public institutions to manage one or more external service providers as part of an outsourcing strategy. ORM is a broadly used term that encompasses elements of organizational structure, management strategy and information technology infrastructure.
Strategy& is a global strategy consulting firm originally established in the United States in 1914 as the Business Research Service, eventually becoming Booz & Company and later a subsidiary of PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), which acquired the former Booz & Company on April 4, 2014. The firm is active in a broad range of sectors, including Energy, Healthcare, Financial Services, Chemicals, Telecommunications, Automotive, Aerospace, Media, Technology and Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG).
Everest Group is a Dallas, Texas management consulting and research firm that advises clients on global services issues. Founded in 1991
David Ing is a Canadian systems scientist, business architect, management consultant and marketing scientist. He served as President of the International Society for the Systems Sciences (2011-2012), and continues as a trustee. He was employed by IBM Canada from 1985 to 2012, in a progression of professional roles.
Financial Executives International (FEI) is a member-service–oriented organization based in Morristown, New Jersey, for senior-level financial executives in companies in varying sizes, both public and private, and in all industries. FEI operates a separate nonprofit foundation: Financial Executive Research Foundation (FERF), which acts as an impartial financial resource for members and Foundation supporters.
Virginia Marie "Ginni" Rometty is an American business executive. She is the current chair, president, and CEO of IBM, and the first woman to head the company. Prior to becoming president and CEO in January 2012, she first joined IBM as a systems engineer in 1981 and subsequently headed global sales, marketing, and strategy. While general manager of IBM's global services division, in 2002 she helped negotiate IBM's purchase of PricewaterhouseCoopers IT consulting business, becoming known for her work integrating the two companies. Since becoming CEO, she has focused IBM on analytics, cloud computing, and cognitive computing systems.
Ron J. Ponder has served the past 35 years as a senior information technology executive in several Fortune 100 companies across a number of industries. He has held senior leadership positions at Federal Express, Sprint, AT&T, Cap Gemini Ernst & Young and WellPoint.
Steve Sashihara is an American business consultant and author who writes about optimization, business process improvement and IT-driven innovation. He is the president and CEO of Princeton Consultants, which he co-founded in 1980 after graduating from Princeton University.
Technology Business Management Council is a Washington-based non-profit organization with the goal of creating and promoting “best practices for running IT as a business.” As of January 2018, the TBM Council has about 5,100 CIO, CTO, & CFO members who are advancing technology business management standards and education across all industries. Its current board of directors includes executives from AIG, Aflac, Apptio, Cisco, Dollar General, First American, Intuit, Great West Life, MasterCard, Micron, Nationwide, Red Ventures, Stanley Black & Decker, SunTrust, Tyson Foods, and the University of Pennsylvania.
William H. Gruber is an American organizational theorist, former professor at MIT, Boston College and Northeastern University, consultant and author, known for his work in the field of computer technology in business in the 1980s.