Laos Memorial

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Ceremony honoring Hmong and Lao combat veterans and their American advisors at the memorial tree and plaque in Arlington National Cemetery (May 15, 2015) A ceremony honoring Hmong and Lao combat veterans at the memorial tree and plaque in Arlington National Cemetery (17068944794).jpg
Ceremony honoring Hmong and Lao combat veterans and their American advisors at the memorial tree and plaque in Arlington National Cemetery (May 15, 2015)

The Laos and Hmong Memorial, or Lao Veterans of America Monument, is a granite monument, bronze plaque and living memorial (that includes an Atlas Cedar tree) in Arlington National Cemetery. Dedicated in May 1997, it is located in Section 2 on Grant Avenue between the path to the JFK memorial and the Tomb of the Unknowns, in Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia, in the United States. The Laos–Hmong memorial commemorates the veterans of the "Secret War" in Laos who fought against invading Soviet Union-backed North Vietnam Army forces of the People's Army of Vietnam and communist Pathet Lao guerrillas. Approved by the U.S. Department of Defense, Arlington National Cemetery, and the U.S. Department of the Army, but designed and paid for privately by the Lao Veterans of America, Inc., the Lao Veterans of America Institute, and The Centre for Public Policy Analysis, the memorial stands as a tribute to the Hmong, Lao, other ethnic groups (Lao, Khmu, Mien, Lahu), and American clandestine and military advisers who made up the Secret War effort during the Vietnam War. The Lao Veterans of America, Inc. is the nation's largest ethnic Laotian- and Hmong-American veterans organization. [1] [2]

The Lao Veterans of America, Inc., describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, non-governmental, veterans organization that represents Lao- and Hmong-American veterans who served in the U.S. clandestine war in the Kingdom of Laos during the Vietnam War as well as their refugee families in the United States.

Arlington National Cemetery Military cemetery in the United States

Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose 624 acres (253 ha) the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. The United States Department of the Army, a component of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), controls the cemetery.

John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame presidential memorial in the United States

The John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame is a presidential memorial at the gravesite of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in Arlington National Cemetery. The permanent site replaced a temporary grave and eternal flame used during President Kennedy's funeral on November 25, 1963. The site was designed by architect John Carl Warnecke, a long-time friend of the President. The permanent John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame grave site was consecrated and opened to the public on March 15, 1967.

Contents

Significance of the memorial

A ceremony honoring Hmong and Lao combat veterans at the memorial tree and plaque in Arlington National Cemetery (17068944694).jpg
Speakers and participants give remarks during a ceremony at the Laos Memorial honoring Hmong and Lao combat veterans and their American advisors(May 15, 2015).
A ceremony honoring Hmong and Lao combat veterans at the memorial tree and plaque in Arlington National Cemetery (17071133203).jpg
Speaking at the 2015 anniversary of the memorial's dedication, Col. Joe A. Simonelli, Chief of Staff at Arlington National Cemetery, called the event "a powerful reminder of the actions of the Hmong, Lao and American service members who fought together as allies during the Vietnam war".
A ceremony honoring Hmong and Lao combat veterans at the memorial tree and plaque in Arlington National Cemetery (17691459315).jpg
Attendees listen to speakers during a ceremony honoring Hmong and Lao combat veterans and their American advisors.

The Laos and Hmong Memorial was dedicated on May 14–15, 1997, by Colonel Wangyee Vang, National President and founder, of the Lao Veterans of America Institute, Philip Smith of the Center for Public Policy Analysis, The Centre for Public Policy Analysis (CPPA), and the Lao Veterans of America, Inc., and Grant McClure of Counterparts Veterans Association, as well as others, in an official Arlington National Cemetery veterans' ceremony attended by tens of thousands. Those attending and participating included Laotian and Hmong-American war veterans, Vietnam veterans, Lao-Hmong refugees, retired and current American government officials, Members of Congress, and U.S. supporters of the Hmong. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] A U.S. Department of Defense Joint Armed Services Color Guard, U.S. Army Wreath Bearer, and U.S. Army Band Bugler participated in the ceremonies.

Wangyee Vang

Wangyee Vang is a Hmong-American community leader, educator and elder from Fresno, and the Central Valley, of California.

Twenty-four years following the end of the U.S. Secret War in the Kingdom of Laos, on May 14–15, 1997, the Lao Veterans of America, Inc., Lao Veterans of America Institute, The Centre for Public Policy Analysis (CPPA), Counterparts Veterans Association, and others, formally dedicated the Laos and Hmong monument in Arlington National Cemetery. [6] National recognition ceremonies were also organized and held at the Vietnam War Memorial and the U.S. Congress to honor the Lao and Hmong veterans, their refugee families, and their American advisers.

The Lao Veterans of America Institute (LVAI) is a national non-profit organization based in Fresno, and the Central Valley, of California, with chapters throughout California. It is one of the largest ethnic Lao- and Hmong-American veterans organizations representing tens of thousands of Lao Hmong veterans who served in the Vietnam War in the Royal Kingdom of Laos as well as their refugee families who were resettled in the United States after the conflict.

The Lao Veterans of America, Inc., CPPA, and the other organizations who spearheaded the dedication of the monument and the national recognition ceremonies argued that there no longer existed any national security interest in denying the Secret War's existence. These organizations worked in Washington, D.C., under the leadership of Colonel Wangyee Vang and Philip Smith, to help educate policymakers and to develop bipartisan political support for these efforts. Many Democratic and Republican members of the U.S. Congress, including key liberal and progressive Democrats, including Congressman Bruce Vento and Senator Paul Wellstone as well as Republican conservatives U.S. conservatives, rallied to support these landmark efforts to honor the Lao and Hmong veterans and their families with the dedication of the Laos and Hmong monument at Arlington National Cemetery. [8] [5] [6] [7] Many of these policymakers, including Members of Congress, also assisted the Laotian and Hmong community on others important issues, including efforts to halt and reverse the forced repatriation of Lao and Hmong refugees and asylum seekers in Southeast Asia.

Bruce Vento American politician

Bruce Frank Vento was an American politician, a Democratic-Farmer-Labor member of the United States House of Representatives from 1977 until his death in 2000, representing Minnesota's 4th congressional district.

Paul Wellstone American politician

Paul David Wellstone was an American academic, author, and politician who represented Minnesota in the United States Senate from 1991 until he was killed in a plane crash in Eveleth, Minnesota, in 2002. A member of the Democratic Farmer-Labor Party, Wellstone was a leader of the progressive wing of the national Democratic Party.

Conservatism in the United States Political ideologies

American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral universalism, business, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism. Liberty is a core value, as is with all major American parties. American conservatives consider individual liberty—within the bounds of American values—as the fundamental trait of democracy; this perspective contrasts with that of modern American liberals, who generally place a greater value on equality and social justice and emphasize the need for state intervention to achieve these goals. American conservatives believe in limiting government in size and scope, and in a balance between national government and states' rights. Apart from some libertarians, they tend to favor strong action in areas they believe to be within government's legitimate jurisdiction, particularly national defense and law enforcement. Social conservatives oppose abortion and favor restricting LGBT rights, while privileging traditional marriage and allowing voluntary school prayer.

Since 1997, these memorial events continue to be held annually at the Laos and Hmong Memorial in Arlington National Cemetery, the Vietnam War Memorial and the U.S. Congress. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

The day, May 15, has since been viewed as an historical one, since it represents the first time that the United States government officially and publicly recognized the important and unique contributions of these soldiers who fought alongside the United States during the Vietnam War. [14] A covert war, the contributions of the ethnic Laotians and Hmong to the U.S. war effort against the North Vietnamese Army and VietCong in Laos had been officially and repeatedly denied by the U.S. government during the Vietnam War and for over two decades following its end. Despite U.S. denials, however, the Secret War was actually the largest U.S. covert operation prior to the Soviet–Afghan War, with key areas of Laos controlled by invading communist North Vietnam's Vietnam People's Army.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Vietnam War 1955–1975 conflict in Vietnam

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975.

Soviet–Afghan War War between the Soviet Union and Afghan insurgents, 1979-89

.

At the time, some argued that the denial of the U.S. covert war, "Secret War", in the Kingdom of Laos was being used by elements within the U.S. Department of State under the Clinton administration as one key reason to wrongly justify a forced repatriation of the Hmong and Laotians from refugee camps in Thailand back to the communist regime in Laos, where they fled persecution and human rights violations. Eventually as a result as of the efforts in Washington, D.C., and Arlington National Cemetery, by the Lao Veterans of America, CPPA and other advocates and policy experts, the U.S. government formally reversed its position, acknowledging both the existence of the U.S.-led Secret War and the Lao and Hmong "Secret Army" contribution to U.S. efforts during the Vietnam War. [15] This official reversal of U.S. policy has since been considered monumental and nearly without precedent in American foreign policy since, in acknowledging the Secret War's existence, the U.S. also implicitly acknowledged that it had lied for decades in denying that it had engaged in combat operations in Laos during the Vietnam War.

The reversal of the forced repatriation policy was subsequently supported even more vigorously by the George W. Bush Administration which strongly supported the earlier bipartisan demands of advocates, and a bipartisan coalition in the U.S. Congress (including progressives, independents and conservatives) that Thailand-based Hmong refugees from Laos be afforded U.S. immigration rights. [15] [16]

The Secret War was funded, and supported, by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency's Special Activities Division and led by General Vang Pao, a Lao Hmong military leader who led the Hmong in supporting tens of thousands of U.S. air combat raids, along with major ground operations, against the North Vietnamese Army and the Pathet Lao communist guerillas in Laos during the Vietnam War. The Secret War was designed to counter North Vietnam's military supply efforts through Laos to South Vietnam, which U.S. military officials believed were core to North Vietnam's war strategy to destabilize U.S.-aligned South Vietnam. This memorial was the culmination of efforts by: Colonel Wangyee Vang, of the Lao Veterans of America Institute; Philip Smith, Executive Director of the Center for Public Policy Analysis, The Centre for Public Policy Analysis ( CPPA ); Grant McClure, Counterparts Veterans Association; Captain D.L. "Pappy" Hicks, Counterparts Veterans Association; and, others. [17] [18] [17]

General Vang Pao was invited by the Lao Veterans of America, Inc., and the CPPA, in May 1997, to speak at the monument's dedication in Arlington National Cemetery along with others.

Following Vang Pao's death in 2011, Philip Smith and others urged, and advocated for, General Vang Pao's burial in Arlington National Cemetery to seek to honor his service to U.S. national security interests during the Vietnam War. [19] [20]

General Vang Pao was formally and officially honored at ceremonies at the Laos and Hmong memorial in Arlington National Cemetery in May 2011. [21]

Dedication words on Laos Memorial

The Laos Memorial is inscribed with the following words:

Dedicated to:
the U.S. Secret Army
in the Kingdom of Laos
1961 - 1973
In memory of the Hmong/Mong and Lao combat
veterans and their American advisors
who served freedom's causes in
Southeast Asia. Their patriotic valor
and loyalty in the defense of liberty and
democracy will never be forgotten.
YOV (yuav) TSHUA TXOG NEJ MUS IB TXHIS
LAOS VETERANS OF AMERICA
May 15, 1997

Keynote speakers and public officials participation

Prominent current, and former, policymakers, veterans, government officials, diplomats, Members of the US Congress and others have provided remarks at the annual veterans memorial ceremony held in May of each year since 1997 at the Laos Memorial. [22] Vietnam veteran and New York Times-best selling author Albert Santoli provided remarks at ceremonies held in May 2014.

See also

Notes

  1. "Lao Veterans of America, Inc". www.laoveterans.org. 14 May 1997.
  2. "Hmong tribesmen honored for their role in 'secret war'". 15 May 1997.
  3. "Lao Veterans of America, Inc. (15 May 1997), laoveteransofamerica.org".
  4. Center for Public Policy Analysis, or Centre for Public Policy Analysis, (CPPA), (15 May 1997) Archived 2008-04-06 at the Wayback Machine , www.centerforpublicpolicyanalysis.org
  5. 1 2 Analysis, Lao Veterans of America, Inc.; Center for Public Policy. "Laos, Hmong Veterans Memorial Ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery". www.prnewswire.com.
  6. 1 2 3 Newspapers, Michael Doyle-McClatchy. "The Hmong, Vietnam era allies, honor their dead from a long-ago war". mcclatchydc.
  7. 1 2 "Recognizing U.S. Allies in 'Secret War'; `Long Overdue' Honors Go to Hmong, Lao Vets". 15 May 1997. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015.
  8. 1 2 "Hmong Veterans to Receive Medals: Laotian People Became Refugees after Helping U.S. Fight Vietnam War". 14 May 1997.
  9. "Laos, Hmong Veterans of Vietnam War Honored At National Ceremonies". www.businesswire.com.
  10. "Reuters, Reuters News, reuters.com (12 May 2013) "Laos, Hmong Veterans of Vietnam War Honored..."".
  11. Analysis, Lao Veterans of America, Inc.; Center for Public Policy. "Laos, Hmong Veterans Memorial Ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery". www.prnewswire.com.
  12. "Laos, Hmong Veterans Honored At National Ceremonies - Scoop News". www.scoop.co.nz.
  13. "Laos, Hmong Veterans of Vietnam War Honored by Congress with National Burial Bill". www.businesswire.com.
  14. ""You Will Never Be Forgotten"". www.hmongtimes.com.
  15. 1 2 "Acts of Betrayal: Persecution of Hmong", by Michael Johns, National Review, October 23, 1995.
  16. "We're sorry, that page can't be found" (PDF). www.state.gov.
  17. 1 2 "Hicks Honored by Hmong Leaders". www.texascherokees.org.
  18. Shooting at the Moon by Roger Warner, The history of CIA/IAD'S 15-year involvement in conducting the secret war in Laos, 1960–1975
  19. "Philip Smith: Vang Pao burial decision is a disgrace".
  20. "Agence France Press (AFP), (12 January 2011) "California Funeral Planned for Hmong General"".
  21. "Vietnam vet to get US honors after burial snub". www.asiaone.com.
  22. "Defense & Aerospace Week (4 June 2014) "Arlington National Cemetery, U.S. Congress, Officials Honor Lao, Hmong-American Veterans"". Archived from the original on 2015-03-29.

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References

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