|Official name||Liberation Day|
|Observed by||Falkland Islands|
|Observances||Thanksgiving service, Wreath laying, Military parade|
|Next time||14 June 2019|
|Related to||Occupation of the Falkland Islands during Falklands War|
Liberation Day is the national day of the Falkland Islands and commemorates the liberation of the Falkland Islanders from Argentine military occupation at the end of the Falklands War on 14 June 1982.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country. This nationhood can be symbolized by the date of independence, of becoming a republic or a significant date for a patron saint or a ruler. Often the day is not called "National Day" but serves and can be considered as one. The national day will often be a national holiday. Many countries have more than one national day.
The Falkland Islands is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles east of South America's southern Patagonian coast, and about 752 miles from the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles, comprises East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, and the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The Falkland Islands' capital is Stanley on East Falkland.
Falkland Islanders, also called Falklanders and nicknamed Kelpers, are the people of the British overseas territory of the Falkland Islands.
It is celebrated every year on 14 June (observed on 15 June when 14th is a Sunday) and is a public holiday.Commemorations include a thanksgiving service at Christ Church Cathedral, followed by wreath laying at the Liberation Memorial and a military parade in Stanley.
Christ Church Cathedral on Ross Road, in Stanley, Falkland Islands, is the southernmost Anglican cathedral in the world, consecrated in 1892. It is the parish church of the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the British Antarctic Territories. The Parish of the Falkland Islands is part of the Anglican Communion. The Rector of the Cathedral is under the ordinary jurisdiction of the Bishop of the Falkland Islands; since 1978 this office has been held ex officio by the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is both ordinary and metropolitan for the small autonomous diocese. In practice authority is exercised through a bishop-commissary appointed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and known as the Bishop for the Falkland Islands.
The 1982 Liberation Memorial is a war memorial in Stanley, Falkland Islands. It commemorates all British Forces and supporting units that served in the Falklands War and helped liberate the Falkland Islanders from Argentine military occupation in 1982. The Memorial is situated in front of the Secretariat Building, overlooking Stanley Harbour. The funds for the Memorial were raised entirely by Falkland Islanders and it was unveiled by the Governor of the Falkland Islands, Sir Rex Hunt, on Liberation Day 1984, the second anniversary of the end of the war.
Stanley is the capital of the Falkland Islands. It is located on the island of East Falkland, on a north-facing slope in one of the wettest parts of the islands. At the 2016 census, the town had a population of 2,460. The entire population of the Falkland Islands was 3,398 on Census Day on 9 October 2016.
The Falkland Islands are a British overseas territory and, as such, rely on the UK for the guarantee of their security. The other UK territories in the South Atlantic, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, fall under the protection of British Forces South Atlantic Islands (BFSAI), formerly known as British Forces Falkland Islands (BFFI), which includes commitments from the British Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. They are headed by the Commander of the British Forces South Atlantic Islands (CBFSAI).
The Falklands War was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities.
RAF Mount Pleasant is a Royal Air Force station in the British Overseas Territory of the Falkland Islands. The airfield goes by the motto of "Defend the right" and is part of the British Forces South Atlantic Islands (BFSAI). Home to between 1,000 and 2,000 British military personnel, it is about 33 miles (53 km) southwest of Stanley, the capital of the Falklands – on the island of East Falkland. The world's longest corridor, half a mile (800 m) long, links the barracks, messes and recreational and welfare areas of the station, and was nicknamed the "Death Star Corridor" by personnel.
The current flag of the Falkland Islands was adopted on 25 January 1999 and consists of a defaced Blue Ensign, with the Union Flag in the canton and the Falkland Islands coat-of-arms in the fly.
The Falkland Islands Defence Force (FIDF) is the locally maintained volunteer defence unit in the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory. The FIDF works alongside the military units supplied by the United Kingdom to ensure the security of the islands.
There are over 230 Catholics in the Falkland Islands, approximately 10% of the total population. There are no dioceses in the islands, instead they form an apostolic prefecture which was erected in January 1952. It is immediately subject to the Holy See and separate from any Argentine or UK dioceses. The spiritual leader of the prefecture is Father Hugh Allan who was appointed in 2016.
Malvinas Day, officially Day of the Veterans and Fallen of the Falklands War, is a public holiday in Argentina, observed each year on 2 April. The name refers to the Falkland Islands, known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas.
The Legislative Council of the Falkland Islands was the unicameral legislature of the Falkland Islands from 13 November 1845 until 1 January 2009. The new constitution came into force in 2009 and replaced the Legislative Council with the Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands.
Nigel Robert Haywood CVO is a British diplomat, who served as British ambassador to Estonia from 2003 until 2008 and Governor of the Falkland Islands from 2010 until 2014.
William Robert Luxton is a Falkland Islands farmer and politician who served as a Member of the Legislative Assembly for the Camp constituency from the 2009 general election until his resignation in 2011. Luxton was also a Member of the Legislative Council from 1989–2001, and served on the Executive Council of the Falkland Islands in the 1980s.
The Falkland Islands general election of 2001 was held on Thursday 22 November 2001 to elect members to the Legislative Council through universal suffrage using block voting. Chief Executive Michael Blanch acted as Chief Counting Officer.
Keith Padgett is an English politician who served as Chief Executive of the Falkland Islands from 2012 to 2016. Before his appointed as Chief Executive, Padgett served as the islands' Financial Secretary from 2008, which was renamed Director of Finance with the implementation of the 2009 Constitution. He also acts as Director of Corporate Resources.
A referendum on political status was held in the Falkland Islands on 10–11 March 2013. The Falkland Islanders were asked whether or not they supported the continuation of their status as an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in view of Argentina's call for negotiations on the islands' sovereignty.
Chileans in the Falkland Islands are people of Chilean ancestry or nationality who live in the Falkland Islands. The Chilean community on the Falklands are the biggest population from mainland South America and also the biggest non-British group representing over 6% of the total population according to the 2012 census, although the true number may be higher as many islanders of Chilean origin listed their national identity as 'Falkland Islander' and Chileans working on the islands temporarily were not counted in the census.
Alexander Jacob Betts Goss is a Falklands-born Argentine air-traffic controller and historian who currently works with the Argentine government as a Technical Advisor on the Tierra del Fuego Malvinas Question Provincial Observatory Advisory Council. Betts supports Argentina's claim to the Falkland Islands and is a controversial figure in the Falklands as a result. Betts also is the older brother of Terry Betts, who served as a member of the Falkland Islands Legislative Council and assisted British forces in the Falklands War. His younger brother Peter served in the British Task Force.
Falklands Day is the celebration of the first sighting of the Falkland Islands by John Davis in 1592, and is celebrated on 14 August.
Eileen Vidal BEM was a kelper telephone and radio operator who maintained radio service and relayed military intelligence to the British Navy during the Falklands War, winning the British Empire Medal for her service.
Approximately 30,000 land mines were laid in the Falkland Islands by Argentinian forces following their 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands. Some of the mines were cleared following the successful British operation to retake the islands but following a series of accidents demining operations ceased. In the intervening years the mine fields were fenced off and, with human access limited, became havens for Falklands flora and the native penguin population. The British government ratified the Ottawa Treaty in 1998 that required the removal of all mines within its territory. Demining operations restarted in 2009, though owing to the climate and local conditions much of the work must be done by hand and completion is not expected until 2020.
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