The novel of circulation, otherwise known as the it-narrative, or object narrative,is a genre of novel common at one time in British literature, and follows the fortunes of an object, for example a coin, that is passed around between different owners. Sometimes, instead, it involves a pet or other domestic animal, as for example in Francis Coventry's The History of Pompey the Little (1751). This and other such works blended satire with the interest for contemporary readers of a roman à clef . They also use objects such as hackney-carriages and bank-notes to interrogate what it meant to live in an increasingly mobile society, and to consider the effect of circulation on human relations.
Twentieth-century examples include Ilya Ehrenburg's The Life of the Automobile (1929)and E. Annie Proulx's Accordion Crimes (1996).
With works of Mary Ann Kilner of the 1780s, Adventures of a Pincushion and Memoirs of a Peg-Top, it-novels became part of children's literature.One offshoot was a style of satirical children's verse made popular by Catherine Ann Dorset, based on a poem by William Roscoe, The Butterfly's Ball and The Grasshopper's Feast . Quite generally, it-narrative in the 19th century is typified by an animal narrator.
It has been remarked that the slave narrative genre of the 18th century avoided being confused with the it-narrative, being thought of as a type of biography.
The plot of Middlemarch has been seen to be structured, initially, by a circulation; but to end in a contrasting "subject narrative".
Alberto Toscano and Jeff Kinkle have argued that one popular form of hyperlink cinema, a genre of film characterized by intersecting and multilinear plots, constitutes a contemporary form of it-narrative.In these films, they argue, "the narrative link is the characters' relation to the film's product of choice, whether it be guns, cocaine, oil, or Nile perch."
Daniel Defoe was an English writer, trader, journalist, pamphleteer and spy. He is most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe, published in 1719, which is claimed to be second only to the Bible in its number of translations. He has been seen as one of the earliest proponents of the English novel, and helped to popularise the form in Britain with others such as Aphra Behn and Samuel Richardson. Defoe wrote many political tracts, was often in trouble with the authorities, and spent a period in prison. Intellectuals and political leaders paid attention to his fresh ideas and sometimes consulted him.
The Metamorphoses of Apuleius, which Augustine of Hippo referred to as The Golden Ass, is the only ancient Roman novel in Latin to survive in its entirety.
In psychology and psychiatry, scopophilia or scoptophilia is an aesthetic pleasure drawn from looking at an object or a person. In human sexuality, the term scoptophilia describes the sexual pleasure that a person derives from looking at prurient objects of eroticism, such as pornography, the nude body, and fetishes, as a substitute for actual participation in a sexual relationship.
Charles Gildon, was an English hack writer who was, by turns, a translator, biographer, essayist, playwright, poet, author of fictional letters, fabulist, short story author, and critic. He provided the source for many lives of Restoration figures, although he appears to have propagated or invented numerous errors with them. He is remembered best as a target of Alexander Pope's in both Dunciad and the Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot and an enemy of Jonathan Swift's. Gildon's biographies are, in many cases, the only biographies available, but they have nearly without exception been shown to have wholesale invention in them. Because of Pope's caricature of Gildon, but also because of the sheer volume and rapidity of his writings, Gildon has come to stand as the epitome of the hired pen and the literary opportunist.
Helen Maria Williams was a British novelist, poet, and translator of French-language works. A religious dissenter, she was a supporter of abolitionism and of the ideals of the French Revolution; she was imprisoned in Paris during the Reign of Terror, but nonetheless spent much of the rest of her life in France. A controversial figure in her own time, the young Williams was favourably portrayed in a 1787 poem by William Wordsworth.
The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.
Vernon Lee was the pseudonym of the British writer Violet Paget. She is remembered today primarily for her supernatural fiction and her work on aesthetics. An early follower of Walter Pater, she wrote over a dozen volumes of essays on art, music, and travel.
Delarivier "Delia" Manley was an English author, playwright, and political pamphleteer. Manley is sometimes referred to, with Aphra Behn and Eliza Haywood, as one of "the fair triumvirate of wit", which is a later attribution.
Marie-Jeanne Riccoboni, whose maiden name was Laboras de Mézières, was a French actress and novelist.
Alexander von Reisden is a fictional character in a three book historical mystery series by Sarah Smith. The novels, set in turn of the 20th century Boston and pre-World War I Paris, are The Vanished Child (1992), The Knowledge of Water (1996), and A Citizen of the Country (2000).
Sarah Smith is an American author living in Brookline, Massachusetts.
Roseann O'Reilly Runte, CM is president and CEO of the Canada Foundation for Innovation. Previous to that, she was a university professor and the president and vice-chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. She was also the seventh president of Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia, only the third woman to head a four-year college or university in Virginia. She has previously served as president of Victoria University, principal of Glendon College, and president of l'Université Sainte-Anne.
Sophistication has come to mean a few things, but its original uses were a pejorative, derived from sophist, and included the idea of admixture or adulteration. Today, as researched by Faye Hammill, it is common as a measure of refinement—displaying good taste, wisdom and subtlety rather than crudeness, stupidity and vulgarity. In the perception of social class, sophistication can be linked with concepts such as status, privilege and superiority.
A romantic thriller or a romance thriller is a narrative that involves elements of the romance and thriller genres.
Kulin Kayasthas are a sub-caste of the Kayastha caste in West Bengal, India. They are also known as the Kulina Kayasthas.
Edward Kimber (1719–1769) was an English novelist, journalist and compiler of reference works.
Helenus Scott M.D. (1760–1821) was a Scottish physician.
Carol Houlihan Flynn
Robina Forrester Hardy, known professionally as Robina F. Hardy, was a Scottish Victorian author, poet and Christian missionary.
Susan Smythies was a British story writer from Colchester in Essex.