Saint Ronan's Well

Last updated

Saint Ronan's Well
St Ronan 1824.jpg
First edition title page.
AuthorSir Walter Scott
LanguageEnglish and Lowland Scots
Series Waverley Novels
Publisher Archibald Constable and Co. (Edinburgh); Hurst, Robinson, and Co. (London)
Publication date
Media typePrint
Pages373 (Edinburgh Edition, 1995)
Preceded by Quentin Durward  
Followed by Redgauntlet  

Saint Ronan's Well [1] is one of the Waverley novels by Sir Walter Scott. Set in a fashionable spa in the Scottish Borders it is the only novel he wrote with a 19th-century setting.


Composition and sources

The composition of Saint Ronan's Well was somewhat erratic. Scott began it immediately after completing Quentin Durward in early May 1823, and by the end of the month more than half of the first volume had been written. It is likely that he then slowed composition to avoid exhausting the market, and the volume was apparently not completed until late August or early September. Thereafter the pace quickened again, with the second volume finished and the third under way by mid-October, but then there came another slowing, and it is probable that it was into December before all was done. It seems likely that this second hold-up was occasioned by Scott's long resistance to the demand by James Ballantyne that the reference in the text to Clara's intercourse with Tyrell should be deleted: he eventually gave in, though signs of the original intention persist in the first edition. [2]

Given its modern setting, it is not surprising that the sources of Saint Ronan's Well are predominantly literary rather than historical. It seems likely, though, that Clara's story was influenced by a protracted legal case involving a Border family, which ran from 1804 until 1820. [3]


The first edition was published in Edinburgh by Archibald Constable and Co. on 27 December 1823, and in London by Hurst, Robinson, and Co. two days later. [4] The print run was 9800, of which Hurst, Robinson took 7000, and the price was one and a half guineas (£1 11s 6d or £1.57½). [5] It is likely that Scott was responsible for some of the small changes to the text of the novel when it appeared in the 1827 Tales and Romances. During the latter part of 1830 he revised the text more extensively and provided an introduction and notes for the 'Magnum' edition, in which it appeared as Volumes 33 and 34 in February and March 1832.

The standard modern edition, by Mark Weinstein, was published as Volume 16 of the Edinburgh Edition of the Waverley Novels in 1995: this is based on the first edition with emendations mainly from the manuscript; the 'Magnum' material appears in Volume 25b (2012).

Plot introduction

The novel concerns the rivalry of two men: Valentine Bulmer, the Earl of Etherington, and his half-brother Francis Tyrrel. Both wish to marry Miss Clara Mowbray, who is the sister of John, the laird of Saint Ronan’s.

Saint Ronan’s Wells, named after Scott's novel, is a spa at Innerleithen, a town near Peebles in southern Scotland.

Plot summary

Saint Ronan's Wells, Innerleithen. Saint Ronan's Wells, Innerleithen.JPG
Saint Ronan's Wells, Innerleithen.

Valentine Bulmer and his half-brother Francis Tyrrel had been Mrs Dods' guests at Cleikum Inn when they were students from Edinburgh, and she gladly welcomed Francis when he arrived, some years afterwards, to stay at the inn again, to fish and sketch in the neighbourhood. A mineral spring had in the meantime been discovered at Saint Ronan’s, and he was invited by the fashionable visitors to dine with them at the Fox Hotel, where he quarrelled with an English baronet named Sir Bingo Binks. On his way back to the Cleikum, he met Clara Mowbray, to whom he had been secretly engaged during his former visit; he had been prevented from marrying her by the treachery of Bulmer, who had now succeeded to the earldom, and was expected at the spa. Tyrrel was visited by Captain MacTurk, and accepted a challenge from the baronet, but failed to keep his appointment, and was posted as an adventurer by the committee of management. He also disappeared from the inn, leading his hostess to consult Mr Bindloose, the sheriff's clerk, under the belief that he had been murdered. A Mr Touchwood came to change a bill, and talked of having been abroad for many years. He showed great interest in the affairs of the Mowbray family, and, having taken up his quarters at the Cleikum, made friends with Rev Mr Cargill, who had been disappointed in love, and startled him with a rumour that Clara was about to be married.

Soon after the earl's arrival, it was reported that he had been shot in the arm by a footpad; and, while his wound was healing, he spent his time gambling with John Mowbray, the young laird of St Ronan's, who had borrowed his sister Clara's money to try to improve his luck. Having allowed him to win a considerable sum, his lordship made proposals for Clara's hand, explaining that his grand-uncle had disinherited his only son, and devised his estate to him, on condition that he chose as a wife a lady of the name of Mowbray. In a letter to his friend Jekyl, the earl confessed that he had been winged in a duel with Tyrrel, whom he met on his way to fight Sir Bingo, and that he had also wounded Tyrrel. A few days afterwards the company at the Well assembled at Shaw's Castle to take part in a play, and Mr Touchwood persuaded Rev Mr Cargill to accompany him. While they were walking in the grounds the minister reminded Clara of a secret in his keeping, which made it impossible for her to marry. He also encountered the earl, and, believing him to be Bulmer, attempted to warn him.

The next morning, as John Mowbray was endeavouring to induce Clara to consent to the marriage, he received an anonymous communication that the earl was an impostor; and, in an interview with him, she rejected his suit with loathing and scorn. His lordship then wrote to Jekyl, telling him the circumstances under which, when he was only sixteen, he had arranged with Mr Cargill for a secret marriage between her and Tyrrel; but, learning subsequently the contents of his uncle's will, had incurred their lifelong hatred by impersonating his brother at the ceremony. Tyrrel, who after the duel had gone to a nearby village to recover from his wound, reappeared just in time to rescue Mr Touchwood from drowning; and, at an interview with Jekyl, who undertook to clear his character, offered to forgo his claim to the earldom, of which he had proof, if his brother would leave Clara alone. The earl sneered at the proposal, and, as he was forming fresh schemes for attaining his end, he discovered that Hannah Irwin, Clara's former companion, was dying at St Ronan's, and anxious to confess her share in the secret marriage. Solmes, the earl's valet, was instructed to carry her off, while his master got the brother into his power by ruining him at play, and then promised to cancel the debt if Clara consented to acknowledge him as her husband within four-and-twenty hours.

Mowbray believed he had prevailed with his sister, when Mr Touchwood unexpectedly arrived, and announced himself as Scrogie, the disinherited son, who by bribing Solmes, and in other ways, had learnt everyone's secrets, and was ready with his fortune to arrange all their difficulties. However, Clara had escaped from her room during the night, and, after appearing at the manse to forgive her cousin, who had been confided to Mr Cargill's care, had made her way to the Cleikum, where, in a seeming trance, she had a final interview with Tyrrel, and died soon afterwards from congestion of the brain. Mowbray, meanwhile, in his search for her, encountered the earl and his companions engaged in a shooting match, and killed him in a duel arranged on the spot by Captain MacTurk, with whom he fled to the Continent to escape imprisonment. Mr Touchwood had consequently to seek some other outlet for his wealth, and the Etherington estates were never claimed by the rightful heir, who determined to pass the remainder of his life in a Moravian mission.


Principal characters in bold

Chapter summary

Volume One

Ch. 1 An old-world landlady: Meg Dods maintains an inn [the Cleikum] in the declined Aulton of Saint Ronan's with a limited set of regular patrons.

Ch. 2 The guest: Francis Tyrrel, who had spent time at Saint Ronan's in his youth, returns and is updated by Meg about the fashionable new development at the neighbouring Well.

Ch. 3 Administration: Tyrrel settles down into a sketching routine, and Meg praises his work to her gossip Nelly Trotter. The narrator provides an outline of the Well management committee members.

Ch. 4 The invitation: The committee agree to invite Tyrrel to the Well, resulting in a set of three cards from different factions.

Ch. 5 Epistolary eloquence: Tyrrel replies to the invitations and is the subject of wild speculation about misanthropy. When he arrives he is found unexpectedly sociable.

Ch. 6 Table-talk: The narrator sketches the characters of Lady Penelope and Lady Binks. Conversation at dinner centres on the whimsical Clara Mowbray's absence from the table and on Tyrrel's sketching, Francis rejecting Lady Penelope's suggested patronage.

Ch. 7 The tea-table: Presiding at after-dinner tea, Lady Penelope badmouths Tyrrel. Dr Quackleben ministers to Mrs Blower, while Lady Penelope and others discuss the relationship of the two. Clara enters, displaying febrile high spirits.

Ch. 8 After dinner: Tyrrel quarrels with Binks before leaving to meet Clara at the Buckstane. MacTurk encourages Binks to take the quarrel further, and the company discuss Clara's inviting them to lunch at Shaws-Castle.

Ch. 9 The meeting: In a fraught meeting at the Buckstane, Tyrrel and Clara recall their past sinful and foolish relationship. On his return to the Cleikum Inn, Tyrrel is rebuked by Meg for going to the Well.

Ch. 10 Resources: Mowbray makes heavy weather of preparations for the lunch at Shaws-Castle. Consulting with Micklewhame, he decides to ask Clara to sell stocks to provide him with cash to gamble with when Etherington arrives.

Ch. 11 Fraternal love: Clara readily agrees to lend her brother the money, but she is worried by his disposition to engage in quarrels.

Ch. 12 The challenge: MacTurk persuades Binks to allow him to carry a challenge to Tyrrel, and does so.

Ch. 13 Disappointment: With Binks, Winterblossom, and Quackleben, MacTurk makes arrangements for the duel, but Tyrrel fails to turn up and they produce a statement calling for his ostracism.

Volume Two

Ch. 1 (14) The consultation: Meg tells Bindloose, in his Marchthorn office, that she fears Tyrrel has been murdered.

Ch. 2 (15) A praiser of past times: Peregrine Touchwood arrives at Bindloose's office, expresses his disapproval of developments in Scotland during his time abroad, and transfers his custom from the Well to the Cleikum Inn.

Ch. 3 (16) The clergyman: Fussy and bored, Touchwood asks Meg about the local minister, Josiah Cargill. The narrator sketches Cargill's history and character.

Ch. 4 (17) The acquaintance: Touchstone visits Cargill and invites him to dinner, where they bond and Touchstone persuades the minister to attend a masquerade at Shaws-Castle, replacing the planned lunch. Cargill is startled when Meg says it is believed at the Well that Clara intends to marry.

Ch. 5 (18) Fortune's frolics: Mowbray repeatedly wins when gambling at picquet with Etherington. He instructs Micklewhame to order a shawl for Clara from Edinburgh. After deliberately losing a large sum, Etherington informs Mowbray that a condition attached to his uncle's legacy means that he must marry Clara Mowbray, his uncle having taken against his own surname Scrogie and disinherited his son for insisting on retaining it. Reflecting favourably on the proposed match, Mowbray decides to postpone mentioning it to his sister till after the theatricals.

Ch. 6 (19) A letter: Writing to his friend Captain Jekyl, Etherington tells how when approaching the Well he had encountered his cousin [i.e. half-brother] Tyrrel on his way to the duel with Binks. Each accused the other of breaking an agreement to keep away from the Well; they duelled, and Tyrell was wounded. Etherington urges Jekyl to come to the Well, with Mrs Binks as an inducement.

Ch. 7 (20) Theatricals: The company present a set of tableaux of scenes from A Midsummer Night's Dream .

Ch. 8 (21) Perplexities: Cargill warns a lady wearing an Indian shawl, whom he takes to be Clara, against entering into a sinful marriage. Approaching Etherington, he recognises him as Valentine Bulmer, which the earl denies. Touchwood assures him of the earl's identity. Lady Penelope raises with Cargill the question of Clara's match, but he retreats in embarrassment.

Ch. 9 (22) Expostulation: Clara tells her brother she has given Lady Penelope the shawl he bought for her, which had originally been destined for her ladyship until Mowbray intervened to secure it. Lady Penelope determines to avenge herself on the Mowbrays. Etherington disappears, leading to general frustration.

Ch. 10 (23) The proposal: Mowbray receives a letter from Etherington saying he left the castle because he preferred to meet Clara one-to-one rather than in company. Clara agrees to see him, but only with the intention of rejecting him.

Ch. 11 (24) Private information: Mowbray receives an anonymous letter [from Tyrrel] warning him against Etherington. The earl persuades Clara not to refuse to see him again, threatening to kill Tyrrel otherwise.

Ch. 12 (25) Explanatory: Etherington tells Mowbray that Tyrrel is deranged and begins a letter to Jekyl recounting the story of his half-brother and himself.

Ch. 13 (26) Letter continued: Etherington concludes his story with an account of his impersonating his half-brother in a secret marriage with Clara, having discovered about his uncle's condition requiring marriage to a Mowbray, following which they had agreed to stay away from Clara and each other.

Volume Three

Ch. 1 (27) The reply: In his reply Jekyl counsels caution, but in response Etherington rejects his advice.

Ch. 2 (28) The fright: Touchwood introduces improvements in the Aulton. He is rescued from a ditch by Tyrrel, whom he had assisted financially in Smyrna.

Ch. 3 (29) Mediation: Tyrrel shows Jekyl copies of documents proving his parents' marriage, and Jekyl proposes that Etherington and Clara should marry openly after concluding a contract of separation. Tyrrel presents as a counter-proposal that he leave Etherington in undisturbed possession of the disputed estate provided he agrees to have no further communication with Clara. He writes off for the original documents.

Ch. 4 (30) Intrusion: Touchwood quizzes a reluctant Jekyl, obtaining his confirmation of the duel between Tyrrel and Etherington.

Ch. 5 (31) Discussion: Etherington discusses matters with Jekyl and instructs Solmes to intercept the documents at the post office. After investigating the workings of the office Etherington has an awkward encounter with his half-brother. He tells Jekyl he is determined to continue with his plan to marry Clara openly.

Ch. 6 (32) A death-bed: The Well is disappointed by the low-key behaviour of the half-brothers. Touchwood is now uncommunicative to Jekyl. Lady Penelope and Etherington hear the ailing Hannah Irwin confess that she was complicit in Clara's ruin.

Ch. 7 (33) Disappointment: Etherington finds that the documents intercepted by Solmes are only another set of copies. He instructs Solmes to arrange for Hannah's removal from the locality. Mowbray loses deeply to Etherington and prepares to speak to his sister.

Ch. 8 (34) A tea-party: At the Well Mowbray learns that Lady Penelope has said Clara is no better than she ought to be. Rejecting Touchwood's attempts to calm him, he rides off furiously.

Ch. 9 (35) Debate: Mowbray ascertains Clara's guilt in a violent interview, and she agrees to marry Etherington.

Ch. 10 (36) A relative: Touchwood tells Mowbray that he (Touchwood) is the disinherited Scrogie of Ch. 18 and informs him of Tyrrel's legitimacy, and of Clara's marriage to the intrusive Etherington, Solmes being his informant. Mowbray agrees to be guided by him.

Ch. 11 (37) The wanderer: Clara is found to be missing from Shaws-Castle, and her brother goes in search of her.

Ch. 12 (38) The catastrophe: Touchwood has arranged for the dying Hannah to be brought to the manse by Solmes, where she confesses to Cargill her role in Clara's ruin and the secret marriage ceremony when Etherington had impersonated Tyrrel. Clara briefly appears and pardons her before proceeding to Tyrrel's room at the Cleikum Inn where she expires. Touchwood arrives to announce that Mowbray has killed Etherington in a duel.

Ch. 13 (39) Conclusion: The duel is described and the characters disposed of. Mowbray has the Well demolished.


Two-thirds of the reviewers judged Saint Ronan's Well adversely, and only two or three were really enthusiastic. [6] Scott's move to his own time was generally considered a mistake, resulting in a set of heavy caricatures of vulgar, commonplace characters. There was also distress at the needlessly tragic ending (at least in part the result of Scott's elimination of Clara's fall from virtue). The story was often found hackneyed, improbable, and ill-conducted. Several reviewers were disappointed when the title's suggestion of a medieval romance evaporated. But even the most severe critics mostly found at least traces of the author's characteristic virtues. Meg Dods and Touchstone attracted general praise, and in a number of reviews the major scene between Mowbray and his sister was singled out for commendation.


"My gude name!—If onybody touched my gude name, I would neither fash counsel nor commissary—I wad be down amang them like a jer-faulcon amang a wheen wild geese, and the best amang them that dared to say onything of Meg Dods bye what was honest and civil, I wad sune see if her cockernonnie was made of her ain hair or other folks'."

Related Research Articles

Earl Marshal Hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom

Earl Marshal is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England. He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral. The Dukes of Norfolk have held the office since 1672.

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk Fourteenth-century English peer

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, KG was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of King Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.

Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy English statesman

Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devonshire, KG was an English nobleman and soldier who served as Lord Deputy of Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I, and later as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland under King James I.

Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk

Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, KG PC FRS Earl Marshal was an English nobleman, politician, and soldier. He was the son of Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk and Lady Anne Somerset, daughter of Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester and Elizabeth Dormer. He was summoned to the House of Lords in his own right as Baron Mowbray in 1678. His unhappy marriage was a subject of much gossip, and ended in divorce.

<i>Kenilworth</i> (novel) Novel by Walter Scott

Kenilworth. A Romance is a historical romance novel by Sir Walter Scott, one of the Waverley novels, first published on 13 January 1821. Set in 1575, it leads up to the elaborate reception of Queen Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle by the Earl of Leicester, who is complicit in the murder of his wife Amy Robsart at Cumnor.

<i>Clarissa</i> 18th century epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson

Clarissa; or, The History of a Young Lady: Comprehending the Most Important Concerns of Private Life. And Particularly Shewing, the Distresses that May Attend the Misconduct Both of Parents and Children, In Relation to Marriage is an epistolary novel by English writer Samuel Richardson, published in 1748. It tells the tragic story of a young woman, Clarissa Harlowe, whose quest for virtue is continually thwarted by her family. The Harlowes are a recently wealthy family whose preoccupation with increasing their standing in society leads to obsessive control of their daughter, Clarissa. It is considered one of the longest novels in the English language. It is generally regarded as Richardson's masterpiece.

<i>The Bride of Lammermoor</i> 1819 novel by Walter Scott

The Bride of Lammermoor is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, published in 1819, one of the Waverley novels. The novel is set in the Lammermuir Hills of south-east Scotland, shortly before the Act of Union of 1707, or shortly after the Act. It tells of a tragic love affair between young Lucy Ashton and her family's enemy Edgar Ravenswood. Scott indicated the plot was based on an actual incident. The Bride of Lammermoor and A Legend of Montrose were published together anonymously as the third of Scott's Tales of My Landlord series. The story is the basis for Donizetti's 1835 opera Lucia di Lammermoor.

<i>The Talisman</i> (Scott novel) 1825 novel by Walter Scott

The Talisman is one of the Waverley novels by Sir Walter Scott. Published in 1825 as the second of his Tales of the Crusaders, the first being The Betrothed, it is set during the Third Crusade and centres on the relationship between Richard I of England and Saladin.

<i>The Antiquary</i> 1816 novel by Walter Scott

The Antiquary (1816), the third of the Waverley novels by Walter Scott, centres on the character of an antiquary: an amateur historian, archaeologist and collector of items of dubious antiquity. He is the eponymous character and for all practical purposes the hero, though the characters of Lovel and Isabella Wardour provide the conventional love interest. The Antiquary was Scott's own favourite of his novels, and is one of his most critically well-regarded works; H. J. C. Grierson, for example, wrote that "Not many, apart from Shakespeare, could write scenes in which truth and poetry, realism and romance, are more wonderfully presented."

<i>Guy Mannering</i> Novel by Walter Scott

Guy Mannering; or, The Astrologer is the second of the Waverley novels by Walter Scott, published anonymously in 1815. According to an introduction that Scott wrote in 1829, he had originally intended to write a story of the supernatural, but changed his mind soon after starting. The book was a huge success, the first edition selling out on the first day of publication.

The Heart of Mid-Lothian is the seventh of Sir Walter Scott's Waverley Novels. It was originally published in four volumes on 25 July 1818, under the title of Tales of My Landlord, 2nd series, and the author was given as "Jedediah Cleishbotham, Schoolmaster and Parish-clerk of Gandercleugh". The main action, which takes place between September 1736 and May 1737, is set in motion by the Porteous Riots in Edinburgh and involves an epic journey from Edinburgh to London by a working-class girl to obtain a royal commutation of the death penalty incurred by her sister for the alleged murder of her new-born baby. Despite some negative contemporary reviews, some now consider it Scott's best novel.

<i>The Abbot</i> 1820 novel by Walter Scott

The Abbot (1820) is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, one of the Waverley novels. A sequel to The Monastery, its action takes place in 1567 and 1568. It reaches its climax in the escape of Mary, Queen of Scots from Lochleven Castle leading to her defeat at the Battle of Langside and her final departure from Scotland.

<i>Peveril of the Peak</i> 1823 novel by Walter Scott

Peveril of the Peak (1823) is the longest novel by Sir Walter Scott. Along with Ivanhoe, Kenilworth, and Woodstock this is one of the English novels in the Waverley novels series, with the main action taking place around 1678 in the Peak District, the Isle of Man, and London, and centring on the Popish Plot.

<i>Anne of Geierstein</i> 1829 novel by Walter Scott

Anne of Geierstein, or The Maiden of the Mist (1829) is one of the Waverley novels by Sir Walter Scott. It is set in Central Europe, mainly in Switzerland, shortly after the Yorkist victory at the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471). It covers the period of Swiss involvement in the Burgundian Wars, the main action ending with the Burgundian defeat at the Battle of Nancy at the beginning of 1477.

<i>The Monastery</i> 1820 novel by Walter Scott

The Monastery: a Romance (1820) is a historical novel by Walter Scott, one of the Waverley novels. Set in the Scottish Borders in the 1550s on the eve of the Reformation, it is centred on Melrose Abbey.

<i>A Chaste Maid in Cheapside</i>

A Chaste Maid in Cheapside is a city comedy written c. 1613 by English Renaissance playwright Thomas Middleton. Unpublished until 1630 and long-neglected afterwards, it is now considered among the best and most characteristic Jacobean comedies.

<i>Castle Dangerous</i> 1831 novel by Walter Scott

Castle Dangerous (1831) was the last of Walter Scott's Waverley novels. It is part of Tales of My Landlord, 4th series, with Count Robert of Paris. The castle of the title is Douglas Castle in Lanarkshire, and the action, based on an episode in The Brus by John Barbour, is set in March 1307 against the background of the First War of Scottish Independence.

Christian Isobel Johnstone (1781–1857) was a prolific journalist and author in Scotland in the nineteenth century. She was a significant early feminist and an advocate of other liberal causes in her era. She wrote anonymously, and under the pseudonym Margaret Dods.

<i>The Double Dealer</i> 1693 play by William Congreve

The Double Dealer is a comic play written by English playwright William Congreve, first produced in 1693. Henry Purcell set it to music.

Touchwood is decayed wood used for tinder. The phrase "touch wood" is another way of describing knocking on wood. The terms may also refer to


The novel is mentioned in Fyodor Dostoevsky's first and unfinished novel Netochka Nezvanova , written in 1849. From Chapter VII "I went into the library (it is a moment that I shall always remember) and took a novel of Sir Walter Scott's, St Ronan's Well, the only one of his novels I had not read."


  1. Saint Ronan's Well is the spelling used by the Edinburgh critical edition, whose editor notes that it is the version Scott himself preferred in his manuscript, although the first edition appeared with the title St Ronan's Well. See Walter Scott, Saint Ronan's Well, edited by Mark Weinstein (Edinburgh University Press, 1995), p. 416.
  2. Walter Scott, Saint Ronan's Well, ed. Mark Weinstein (Edinburgh, 1995), 375–80.
  3. Ibid., 443–45.
  4. For a description of the early editions see Ibid., 379–80, 394–403.
  5. For the London publication date see William B. Todd and Ann Bowden, Sir Walter Scott: A Bibliographical History 1796–1832 (New Castle, Delaware, 1998), 589.
  6. For a full list of contemporaneous British reviews of Saint Ronan's Well see William S. Ward, Literary Reviews in British Periodicals, 1821‒1826: A Bibliography (New York and London, 1977), 177‒78. For an earlier annotated list see James Clarkson Corson, A Bibliography of Sir Walter Scott (Edinburgh and London, 1943), 257‒58.

This article incorporates text from the revised 1898 edition of Henry Grey's A Key to the Waverley Novels (1880), now in the public domain.