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Sopade (also called SoPaDe) was the name of the exile organization of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). It operated in Prague from 1933 to 1938, from 1938 to 1940 in Paris and until 1945 in London.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris is one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
After the occupation of the trade union houses by the Nazis on 2 May 1933, the party executive committee decided that some particularly endangered members of the board would immediately have to flee from the grasp of the Nazis. Otto Wels, Paul Hertz, Friedrich Stampfer, Erich Ollenhauer and others were assigned to build up a foreign party structure in Prague.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.
Otto Wels was the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1933.
Erich Ollenhauer was the leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1952–1963.
When the Sopade could not reach an agreement with the remaining party executive committee in Berlin about acting with Paul Löbe against Hitler's peace resolution, which was interpreted as sanctioning the fascist foreign policy by the SPD, nothing could prevent the break between Berlin and Prague, which came two weeks later, in mid-May 1933. Because of the final Nazi prohibition of the SPD on 22 June 1933, it no longer came to a split between the home and foreign SPD.
Paul Löbe was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as President of the Reichstag.
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.
Under pressure from the intra-party opposition groups Neu Beginnen and Revolutionäre Sozialisten Deutschlands, the Sopade in 1934 published the Prague Manifesto, penned by Rudolf Hilferding. This document called for the revolutionary overthrow of the Hitler regime.
Neu Beginnen was an anti-fascist opposition group formed in 1929 by left-wing members of the Social Democratic Party. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, the members of the small group discussed what the future of Germany should be after the Nazis. The conclusion was a left-wing coalition government consisting of Social Democrats, Socialists and Communists. The leaders of the group saw disunity among the left as one of the key reasons the NSDAP had been able to seize power. They produced illegal pamphlets to advocate their ideas but failed to unite enough anti-fascists to take a significant hold. As a consequence, its loosely organised followers had all either been killed, left the party or been arrested by 1936.
With the cooperation of Rudolf Hilferding, the Sopade published Germany Reports through a secret correspondence system. These dealt with the situation in Nazi Germany. The reports appeared in published form from April/May 1934 to December 1936 under the title Germany Report of the Sopade , from January 1937 until April 1940 under the title of “Germany Reports of the Social-Democratic Party of Germany (Sopade)”, by order of the executive committee in exile of the SPD, edited by Erich Rinner, until March 1938 in Prague, from May 1938 in Paris.
Rudolf Hilferding was an Austrian-born Marxist economist, leading socialist theorist, politician and chief theoretician for the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) during the Weimar Republic, almost universally recognized as the SPD's foremost theoretician of his century, and a physician.
In 1945, the Allied occupants in the Western zones initially allowed four parties to be established, including the re-establishment of the SPD.
The Union of German Socialist Organisations in Great Britain was the amalgamation of German socialist and social democratic oriented organizations of exiled Germans during World War II.
Rudolf Breitscheid, was a leading member of the Social Democratic Party and a delegate to the Reichstag during the era of the Weimar Republic in Germany.
Die Neue Zeit was a German socialist theoretical journal of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) that was published from 1883 to 1923. Its headquarters was in Stuttgart, Germany.
The Free State of Brunswick was a state of the German Reich in the time of the Weimar Republic. It was formed after the abolition of the Duchy of Brunswick in the course of the German Revolution of 1918–19. Its capital was Braunschweig (Brunswick).
Hans Vogel was a German politician and chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) along with Arthur Crispien and Otto Wels from 1931 to 1933. After the NSDAP came to power in 1933, he became one of the leaders of the social democratic exile organization Sopade.
The German Labour Delegation (GLD) was a social-democratic organisation of German emigrants in the United States during the time of Nazi Germany.
Arthur Crispien was a German Social Democratic politician.
The Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund or ISK was a socialist split-off from the SPD during the Weimar Republic and was active in the German Resistance against Nazism.
Willi Eichler was a German journalist and politician with the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
William "Bill" Smaldone is the E. J. Whipple Professor of European history at Willamette University in Salem, Oregon, United States.
Vorwärts is a newspaper published by the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Founded in 1876, it was the central organ of the SPD for many decades. Following the party's Halle Congress (1891), it was published daily as the successor of Berliner Volksblatt, founded in 1884. Today it is published monthly, mailed to all SPD members.
The Labour and Socialist International was an international organization of socialist and labour parties, active between 1923 and 1940. The group was established through a merger of the rival Vienna International and the former Second International, based in London, and was the forerunner of the present-day Socialist International.
Georg Ledebour was a German socialist journalist and politician.
Fritz Heine was a German politician (SPD). He also involved himself in political journalism and newspaper publishing.