Thomas Reh

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Thomas A. Reh Ph.D. is an American scientist and author.

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He received his B.Sc. in Biochemistry from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1977 and his Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1981. He went on to postdoctoral studies at Princeton University in the lab of Martha Constantine-Paton. He is currently Professor of Biological Structure and former Director of the Neurobiology and Behavior Program at the University of Washington.

The overall goal of Dr. Reh’s research is to understand the cell and molecular biology of regeneration in the eye. He has worked at the interface between development and regeneration, focusing on the retina. The lab is currently divided into a team that studies retinal development and a team that studies retinal regeneration, with the goal of applying the principles learned from developmental biology to design rationale strategies for promoting retinal regeneration in the adult mammalian retina.

His research has been funded through numerous grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and many private foundations, and he has served on several national and international grant review panels, including NIH study sections, and is currently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Foundation Fighting Blindness and of a start-up biotechnology company, Acucela. He has received several awards for his work, including the AHFMR and Sloan Scholar awards. He has published over 100 journal articles, reviews and books, nearly all in the field of retinal regeneration and development.

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Retina Part of the eye

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs. The optics of the eye create a focused two-dimensional image of the visual world on the retina, which translates that image into electrical neural impulses to the brain to create visual perception. The retina serves a function analogous to that of the film or image sensor in a camera.

Retinal ganglion cell Type of cell within the eye

A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a small dot moving a small distance. Retinal ganglion cells collectively transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain.

Electroretinography

Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors, inner retinal cells, and the ganglion cells. Electrodes are placed on the surface of the cornea or on the skin beneath the eye to measure retinal responses. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) responses are measured with an EOG test with skin-contact electrodes placed near the canthi. During a recording, the patient's eyes are exposed to standardized stimuli and the resulting signal is displayed showing the time course of the signal's amplitude (voltage). Signals are very small, and typically are measured in microvolts or nanovolts. The ERG is composed of electrical potentials contributed by different cell types within the retina, and the stimulus conditions can elicit stronger response from certain components.

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Radial glial cells, or radial glial progenitor cells (RGPs), are bipolar-shaped progenitor cells that are responsible for producing all of the neurons in the cerebral cortex. RGPs also produce certain lineages of glia, including astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Their cell bodies (somata) reside in the embryonic ventricular zone, which lies next to the developing ventricular system.

Eye development Formation of the eye during embryonic development

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Müller glia Glial cell type in the retina

Müller glia, or Müller cells, are a type of retinal glial cells, first recognized and described by Heinrich Müller. They are found in the vertebrate retina, which serve as support cells for the neurons, as all glial cells do. They are the most common type of glial cell found in the retina. While their cell bodies are located in the inner nuclear layer of the retina, they span across the entire retina.

Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms. Some examples are rhodopsin in the photoreceptor cells of the vertebrate retina, phytochrome in plants, and bacteriorhodopsin and bacteriophytochromes in some bacteria. They mediate light responses as varied as visual perception, phototropism and phototaxis, as well as responses to light-dark cycles such as circadian rhythm and other photoperiodisms including control of flowering times in plants and mating seasons in animals.

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NFIX

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Parasol cell

A parasol cell, sometimes called an M cell or M ganglion cell, is one type of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) located in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. These cells project to magnocellular cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) as part of the magnocellular pathway in the visual system. They have large cell bodies as well as extensive branching dendrite networks and as such have large receptive fields. Relative to other RGCs, they have fast conduction velocities. While they do show clear center-surround antagonism, they receive no information about color. Parasol ganglion cells contribute information about the motion and depth of objects to the visual system.

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Retinal homeobox protein Rx

Retinal homeobox protein Rx also known as retina and anterior neural fold homeobox is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAX gene. The RAX gene is located on chromosome 18 in humans, mice, and rats.

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References

Microglia suppress Ascl1-induced retinal regeneration in mice. Todd, L., Finkbeiner, C., Wong, C.K., Hooper, M.J. Reh, T.A. Cell Reports. 2020 Dec 15; 33 (11): 108507. PMID 33326790

Developmental changes in the accessible chromatin, transcriptome and Ascl1-binding correlate with the loss in Müller Glial regenerative potential. Vandenbosch, L.V., Wohl, S.G, Wilken, M.S., Hooper, M.J., Finkbeiner, C., Cox, K., Chipman, L. Reh. T.A. Scientific Reports. 2020 Aug 12;10(1):13615. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-70334-1.

Single-Cell Transcriptomic Comparison of Human Fetal Retina, hPSC-Derived Retinal Organoids, and Long-Term Retinal Cultures. Sridhar A, Hoshino A, Finkbeiner CR, Chitsazan A, Dai L, Haugan AK, Eschenbacher KM, Jackson DL, Trapnell C, Bermingham-McDonogh O, Glass I, Reh TA. Cell Rep. 2020 Feb 4;30(5):1644-1659.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.01.007. PMID 32023475

STAT Signaling Modifies Ascl1 Chromatin Binding and Limits Neural Regeneration from Muller Glia in Adult Mouse Retina. Jorstad NL, Wilken MS, Todd L, Finkbeiner C, Nakamura P, Radulovich N, Hooper MJ, Chitsazan A, Wilkerson BA, Rieke F, Reh TA. Cell Rep. 2020 Feb 18;30(7):2195-2208.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.01.075. PMID 32075759

MicroRNAs miR-25, let-7 and miR-124 regulate the neurogenic potential of Müller glia in mice.Wohl SG, Hooper MJ, Reh TA.Development. 2019 Aug 5. pii: dev.179556. doi: 10.1242/dev.179556. [Epub ahead of print]PMID 31383796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Similar articles

Synchrony and asynchrony between an epigenetic clock and developmental timing. Hoshino A, Horvath S, Sridhar A, Chitsazan A, Reh TA.Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 6;9(1):3770. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-39919-3.PMID 30842553 [PubMed - in process] Free PMC Article Similar articles

Textbooks

Sanes, Reh, Harris (2005). Development of the Nervous System, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN   0-12-618621-9