Thongvan Fanmuong was a Cambodian major general who served in the Khmer National Armed Forces under the Khmer Republic regime of Lon Nol.He was a graduate of the French Ecole d'Etat Major and Ecole de Guerre. He was a member of the supreme committee of the Republic of Cambodia, along with General Sak Sutsakhan, Long Boret, Hang Thun Hak, Op Kim Ang, General Ear Chhong (Chief of Staff of the Air Force), and Admiral Vong Sarindy (Chief of the Navy Staff). The committee tried to "organize a surrender" as the Khmer Rouge took over the country.
Cambodia, officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is 181,035 square kilometres in area, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.
The Khmer National Armed Forces, often abbreviated to FANK, were the official armed defense forces of the Khmer Republic, a short-lived state that existed from 1970 to 1975, known today as Cambodia. The FANK was the successor of the Royal Khmer Armed Forces which had been responsible for the defense of the previous Kingdom of Cambodia since its independence in 1954 from France.
The Khmer Rouge was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. The name had originally been used in the 1950s by Norodom Sihanouk as a blanket term for the Cambodian left.
Pol Pot was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the general secretary of the Communist Party of Kampuchea from 1963 to 1981. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist and Khmer nationalist, he led the Khmer Rouge group from 1963 until 1997. From 1976 to 1979, he served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea.
Marshal Lon Nol was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister twice, as well as serving repeatedly as Defense Minister. He led the military coup of 1970 against Prince Norodom Sihanouk and became the self-proclaimed President of the U.S.-backed Khmer Republic, ruling until 1975. He was the founder and leader of the short-lived Social Republican Party, and commander-in-chief of the Khmer National Armed Forces. After the Khmer Rouge took power, Lon Nol fled to the United States, and remained there until his death in 1985.
Norodom Sihanouk was a Cambodian royal, politician, composer and filmmaker who was twice King and numerous times Prime Minister of Cambodia. In Cambodia, he is also known as Samdech Euv. Until the early years of his rule, his family ruled over the French Protectorate of Cambodia.
The Khmer Republic was the pro–United States military-led republican government of Cambodia that was formally declared on 9 October 1970. Politically, the Khmer Republic was headed by General Lon Nol and Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak that took power in the 18 March 1970 coup against Prince Norodom Sihanouk, then the country's head of state.
The Cambodian Civil War was a military conflict that pitted the forces of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and their allies the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Viet Cong against the government forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia and, after October 1970, the Khmer Republic, which were supported by the United States (U.S.) and the Republic of Vietnam.
Heng Samrin is a Cambodian politician who was the de facto leader of the Hanoi-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea from 1979 to 1981 and General Secretary of the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party from 1981 to 1991. He has been the President of the National Assembly of Cambodia since 2006; he is also Honorary President of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and a Member of Parliament for Tboung Khmum Province. Heng Samrin is Cambodia's oldest parliamentarian, at 84 years of age. His honorary title is "Samdech Akeak Moha Ponhea Chakrei Heng Samrin".
The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, otherwise known in Vietnam as the Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border, was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea. The war began with isolated clashes along the land and maritime boundaries of Vietnam and Kampuchea between 1975 and 1978, occasionally involving division-sized military formations. On 25 December 1978, Vietnam launched a full-scale invasion of Kampuchea and subsequently occupied the country and removed the Communist Party of Kampuchea government from power.
The Khmer People's National Liberation Front was a political front organized in 1979 in opposition to the Vietnamese-installed People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) regime in Cambodia. The 200,000 Vietnamese troops supporting the PRK, as well as Khmer Rouge defectors, had ousted the brutal Democratic Kampuchea regime of Pol Pot, and were initially welcomed by the majority of Cambodians as liberators. Some Khmer, though, recalled the two countries' historical rivalry and feared that the Vietnamese would attempt to subjugate the country, and began to oppose their military presence. Members of the KPNLF supported this view.
The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF) is the national military forces of Cambodia. The Supreme Commander-in-Chief is HM King Norodom Sihamoni, Since 2018 General Vong Piseng is the Commander in Chief of the RCAF as head of the Army, Navy, Air Force and the Gendarmerie.
Son Sann was a Cambodian politician and anti-communist resistance leader who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Cambodia (1967–68) and later as President of the National Assembly (1993). A devout Buddhist, he fathered seven children and was married. His full honorary title is "Samdech Borvor Setha Thipadei Son Sann".
General Sosthène Fernandez was the Commander-in-Chief of the Khmer National Armed Forces (FANK) and chief of general staff of the Khmer Republic after Prince Sihanouk was deposed as head of state in 1970. Prior to 1970, he was a prominent politician and a former chief of the police.
Operation Menu was the codename of a covert United States Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970 as part of both the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War. The targets of these attacks were sanctuaries and Base Areas of the People's Army of Vietnam and forces of the Viet Cong (NLF), which utilized them for resupply, training, and resting between campaigns across the border in the Republic of Vietnam. The impact of the bombing campaign on the Khmer Rouge guerrillas, the PAVN, and Cambodian civilians in the bombed areas is disputed by historians.
Long Boret or Long Boreth was a Cambodian politician who served as Prime Minister of the Khmer Republic from December 26, 1973, to April 17, 1975. Highly regarded for his honesty, he tried unsuccessfully to negotiate a peace settlement with the Khmer Rouge during the Cambodian Civil War. He was later arrested by the Khmer Rouge and executed. He is one of two Prime Ministers to die in office, the other being Chan Sy.
The Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP) is a national university of Cambodia, located in the capital Phnom Penh. Established in 1960, it is the country's largest university. It hosts more around 20,000 students in undergraduate and postgraduate programs. It offers degrees in fields such as sciences, humanities and social sciences, engineering as well as vocational courses in fields such as information technology, electronics, psychology and tourism. RUPP provides Cambodia’s foremost degree-level language programs through the Institute of Foreign Languages. RUPP has full membership in the ASEAN University Network (AUN).
The People's Republic of Kampuchea was founded in Cambodia by the Salvation Front, a group of Cambodian communists dissatisfied with the Khmer Rouge after the overthrow of Democratic Kampuchea, Pol Pot's government. Brought about by an invasion from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, which routed the Khmer Rouge armies, it had Vietnam and the Soviet Union as its main allies.
General Sak Sutsakhan was a Cambodian politician and soldier who had a long career in the country's politics. He was the last Head of State of the Khmer Republic, the regime overthrown by the Khmer Rouge in 1975. Sak Sutsakhan formed a pro-US force known as the "Khmer Sâ".
General Dien Del directed combat operations in Cambodia, first as a general in the Army of the Khmer Republic (1970–1975) and then as a leader of Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) guerrilla forces fighting against the Vietnamese occupation (1979–1992).
Sarendy Vong was a Fleet Admiral in the Khmer Republic. He held his most prominent position as the head of the Khmer National Navy (MNK) from 1970 to 1975 and as a member of the Supreme Committee which ran the Khmer republic during the Phnom Penh siege.
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