Thorax (disambiguation)

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The thorax is the human chest, or division of an animal's body that lies between the head and the abdomen.

Thorax frontal part of an animals body, between its head and abdomen

The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs, and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain.

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Thorax may also refer to:

Thorax (insect anatomy) body part of an arthropod

The thorax is the midsection (tagma) of the insect body. It holds the head, legs, wings and abdomen. It is also called mesosoma in other arthropods.

Linothorax Ancient Greek body armour mamde of layers of glued linen

The linothorax is a type of upper body armor used by the ancient Greeks, ancient Macedonians. The modern term linothorax is based on the Greek λινοθώραξ, which means "wearing a breastplate of linen"; the actual ancient term for this type of armour is unclear. The term "thorax" was the word for breastplate during this era and was traditionally made of metal in most contexts. The "linothorax" were made of linen glued in layers with animal fat, and eventually adopted by many armies. The earliest attested account of a linothorax used for battle is recorded in Book 2 of Homer's Iliad. It is worn by Ajax the Lesser and is described in brief. Homer, composing stories long before the great armies of Athens, Thebes, Sparta and Macedon, surely understood what the armor was. However, the extent to which it was used can not be fully determined as the texts were not accurate accounts of specific time periods. An educated guess can be made, however, based on its use by Alexander the Great, and its mention by other sources such as Herodotus, Livy (4.19.2–20.7), Strabo, and many other minor sources. The linothorax appears to have been used in place of the bronze "bell cuirass" as the popular choice of armour for Greek hoplites, starting perhaps around the late seventh century and early sixth century B.C. This could have been due to the lower price, lesser weight, and cooler material. Its high point in vase paintings, sculptural reliefs and artistic depictions corresponds with the time of the Persian Wars. By the time of the Peloponnesian War it was still used, and continued to seemingly flourish well into the Hellenistic period.

<i>Thorakitai</i>

The thorakitai were a type of soldier in Hellenistic armies similar to the thureophoroi. The literal translation of the term is "cuirassiers", which suggests that they may have worn a short Celtic mail shirt or possibly a linothorax.

People

Thorax of Larissa in Thessaly was a member of the powerful family of the Aleuadae. He was a son of an Aleuas who was a friend of the poet Simonides.

Thorax of Lacedaemonia is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus as acting under Spartan commander Callicratidas during his operations in Lesbos in 405 BC, and as having been commissioned by him, after the capture of Mithymna, to conduct the heavy-armed troops to Mytilene. In the following year we again find Thorax in command of the land-force which cooperated with the fleet under Lysander in the storming of Lampsacus; and he was left at Samos as harmost by Lysander, when the latter was on his way to Athens after the Battle of Aegospotami in 404 BC. According to Plutarch, when the satrap Pharnabazus sent to Sparta to complain of ravages committed in his territory by Lysander, the Lacedaemonian government put Thorax to death, as he was a friend and colleague of the accused admiral, and they had found money in his possession. The date and circumstances of this, however, are very doubtful.

Pindar Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes

Pindar was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes. Of the canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserved. Quintilian wrote, "Of the nine lyric poets, Pindar is by far the greatest, in virtue of his inspired magnificence, the beauty of his thoughts and figures, the rich exuberance of his language and matter, and his rolling flood of eloquence, characteristics which, as Horace rightly held, make him inimitable." His poems can also, however, seem difficult and even peculiar. The Athenian comic playwright Eupolis once remarked that they "are already reduced to silence by the disinclination of the multitude for elegant learning". Some scholars in the modern age also found his poetry perplexing, at least until the 1896 discovery of some poems by his rival Bacchylides; comparisons of their work showed that many of Pindar's idiosyncrasies are typical of archaic genres rather than of only the poet himself. His poetry, while admired by critics, still challenges the casual reader and his work is largely unread among the general public.

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Geography

Thorax was a town in ancient Aetolia.

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Acarnania historical region

Acarnania is a region of west-central Greece that lies along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. Today it forms the western part of the regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. The capital and principal city in ancient times was Stratos. The north side of Acarnania of the Corinthian Gulf was considered part of the region of Epirus.

Ancient Greece Civilization belonging to an early period of Greek history

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.

Sozopol Place in Burgas, Bulgaria

Sozopol is an ancient seaside town located 35 km south of Burgas on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Today it is one of the major seaside resorts in the country, known for the Apollonia art and film festival that is named after one of the town's ancient names.

Aetolia mountainous region of Greece

Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania.

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Aetolian League confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece

The Aetolian League was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia in central Greece. It was established, probably during the early Hellenistic era, in opposition to Macedon and the Achaean League. Two annual meetings were held at the Thermika and Panaetolika. It occupied Delphi from 290 BC and gained territory steadily until, by the end of the 3rd century BC, it controlled the whole of central Greece outside Attica and Boeotia. At its peak, the league's territory included Locris, Malis, Dolopes, part of Thessaly, Phocis, and Acarnania. In the latter part of its power, certain Greek city-states joined the Aetolian League such as the Arcadian cities of Mantineia, Tegea, Phigalia and Kydonia on Crete.

Calydon Greek city in ancient Aetolia

Calydon or Kalydon was a Greek city in ancient Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus, 7.5 Roman miles from the sea. Its name is most famous today for the Calydonian Boar that had to be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age.

Agrinio Place in Greece

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Thesprotians

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Vonitsa Place in Greece

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Titormus was a legendary shepherd of Aetolia, famous in Antiquity for his victory over Milo of Croton, who in turn, was the most successful wrestler of the Ancient Olympics. The duel between Milo and Titormus, however, was not an ordinary wrestlers' competition: according to Claudius Aelianus, rivals compared their strength in a wild Aetolian scenery, while lifting or throwing rocks, or catching bulls. Defeated, Milo praised his victor as "the second Heracles". Titormus, considered the strongest man ever living, was believed to inhabit the most remote parts of peripheral Aetolia. From 5th century BC onwards, his legend served to strengthen Aetolia's ethnic identity.

Theodotus is the name of:

Outline of ancient Greece

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Ancient Greece:

Regions of ancient Greece

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Dolopia historical region

Dolopia is a mountainous region of Greece, located north of Aetolia.