Thorax (Greek: Θώραξ) of Larissa in Thessaly was a member of the powerful family of the Aleuadae. He was a son of an Aleuas who was a friend of the poet Simonides.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
Larissa is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region, the fourth-most populous in Greece according to the population results of municipal units of 2011 census and capital of the Larissa regional unit. It is a principal agricultural centre and a national transport hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos, the cities of Thessaloniki and Athens. Larissa, within its municipality, has 162,591 inhabitants, while the regional unit of Larissa reached a population of 284,325. The urban area of the city, although mostly contained within the Larissa municipality, also includes the communities of Giannouli, Platykampos, Nikaia, Terpsithea and several other suburban settlements, bringing the wider urban area population of the city to about 174,012 inhabitants and extends over an area of 572.3 km2 (221.0 sq mi).
Thessaly is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, and appears thus in Homer's Odyssey.
Thorax and his brothers, Eurypylus and Thrasydaeus, wishing to confirm or to increase their power, were among those who urged Xerxes to invade Greece, and promised him their assistance in the enterprise. In Xerxes' retreat, after the Battle of Salamis, Thorax formed one of his escort, after which he still continued to show his zeal in the cause of the invaders, and was present with Mardonius at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. When the Persians had been finally driven from Greece, Leotychidas, king of Sparta, led an army into Thessaly to punish those who had sided with the barbarians, but the Aleuadae bribed him to refrain from making reprisals against their kin.
The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks. The battle was fought in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, and marked the high-point of the second Persian invasion of Greece.
Mardonius was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC who died at the Battle of Plataea.
The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place in 479 BC near the city of Plataea in Boeotia, and was fought between an alliance of the Greek city-states, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I.
Alexander was tagus or despot of Pherae in Thessaly, and ruled from 369 to c. 356 BC. Following the assassination of the tyrant Jason of Pherae, in 370 BC, his brother Polydorus ruled for a year, but he was then poisoned by another brother, Alexander. Alexander governed tyrannically and was constantly seeking to control Thessaly and the kingdom of Macedonia. He also engaged in piratical raids on Attica. Alexander was murdered by the brothers of his wife, Thebe, as it was said that she lived in fear of her husband and hated Alexander's cruel and brutal character.
Andriscus, also often referenced as Pseudo-Philip, was the last King of Macedon (r. 149–148 BC). A pretender, who claimed to be the son of Perseus of Macedon, he was a fuller from Adramyttium in Aeolis in western Anatolia. His reign lasted just one year.
Hippias of Athens was one of the sons of Peisistratus, and was the last tyrant of Athens between about 527 BC and 510 BC, when Cleomenes I of Sparta successfully invaded Athens and forced Hippias to leave Athens.
Alexander II of Macedon was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon in 371–369 BC, following the death of his father Amyntas III.
Asander was the son of Philotas and brother of Agathon. He was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great and satrap of Caria after Alexander's death.
Philip was son of Antipater, the regent of Macedonia, and brother of Cassander, by whom he was sent in 313 BC, with an army to invade Aetolia. But on his arrival in Acarnania the news that Aeacides, king of Epirus, had recovered possession of his throne, induced him to turn his arms against that monarch, whom he defeated in a pitched battle. Aeacides with the remnant of his forces having afterwards joined the Aetolians, a second action ensued, in which Philip was again victorious, and Aeacides himself fell in the battle. The Aetolians hereupon abandoned the open country, and took refuge in their mountain fastnesses. According to Justin Philip had participated with his two brothers, Cassander and Iollas, in the conspiracy for the murder of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. He was the father of Antipater Etesias.
Taxiles was a general in the service of Mithridates VI of Pontus, and one of those in whom he reposed the highest confidence. He is first mentioned in 86 BC, when he was sent by Mithridates, with an army of not less than 110,000 men, to Europe, to make his way, through Thrace and Macedonia, to the assistance of Archelaus in Greece. This task he successfully accomplished, reduced Amphipolis, which had at first defied his arms, and having thus struck terror into the Macedonians, advanced without further opposition, through that country and Thessaly, into Phocis. Here he at first laid siege to Elateia, but was foiled in his attacks, and relinquished the enterprise, in order to form a junction with Archelaus in Boeotia. This object lie effected: but though the two generals now found themselves at the head of a formidable host, their combined forces were defeated in 86 BC by Sulla near Chaeronea, with great slaughter.
The Thessalian League was a loose confederacy of feudal-like city-states and tribes in the Thessalian plain in Greece. The seat of the Thessalian diet was Larissa.
The Aleuadae were an ancient Thessalian family of Larissa who claimed descent from the mythical Aleuas. The Aleuadae were the noblest and most powerful among all the families of Thessaly, whence Herodotus calls its members "rulers" or "kings" (βασιλεῖς).
Spurius Postumius Albinus was a politician of Ancient Rome, of patrician rank, of the 4th century BC. He was consul in 334 BC, and invaded, with his colleague Titus Veturius Calvinus, the country of the Sidicini. But on account of the great forces which the enemy had collected, and the report that the Samnites were coming to their assistance, a dictator was appointed, Publius Cornelius Rufinus.
Aleuas or Alevas can refer to more than one person from ancient Greek myth and history:
Thorax of Lacedaemonia is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus as acting under Spartan commander Callicratidas during his operations in Lesbos in 405 BC, and as having been commissioned by him, after the capture of Mithymna, to conduct the heavy-armed troops to Mytilene. In the following year we again find Thorax in command of the land-force which cooperated with the fleet under Lysander in the storming of Lampsacus; and he was left at Samos as harmost by Lysander, when the latter was on his way to Athens after the Battle of Aegospotami in 404 BC. According to Plutarch, when the satrap Pharnabazus sent to Sparta to complain of ravages committed in his territory by Lysander, the Lacedaemonian government put Thorax to death, as he was a friend and colleague of the accused admiral, and they had found money in his possession. The date and circumstances of this, however, are very doubtful.
Alexander of Acarnania was once a friend of Philip V of Macedon but abandoned him, and insinuated himself so much into the favor of Antiochus III the Great, that he was admitted to his most secret deliberations. He advised the king to invade Greece, holding out him the most brilliant prospects of victory over the Romans. Antiochus followed his advice. Alexander was greatly injured in the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 194 BC in which Antiochus was defeated by the Romans, and in this state he carried the news of the defeat to his kin, who was staying at Thronium, on the Maliac Gulf. When the king, on his retreat from Greece, had reached Cenaeum in Euboea, Alexander died and was buried there, in 191.
Menon was a citizen of Pharsalus in Thessaly, and a man of great influence and reputation, took a prominent part in the Lamian war, and commanded the Thessalian cavalry in the battle with the Macedonians, in which Leonnatus was slain.
Onomarchus was general of the Phocians in the Third Sacred War, brother of Philomelus and son of Theotimus. After his brother's death he became commander of the Phocians and pursued a warmongering policy until his final defeat.
Ameinias or Aminias was a younger brother of the playwright Aeschylus and of a hero of the battle of Marathon named Cynaegirus. He also had a sister, named Philopatho, who was the mother of the Athenian tragic poet Philocles. His father was Euphorion. Ameinias was from the Attica deme of Pallene according to Herodotus, or of that of Decelea according to Plutarch. He distinguished himself at the battle of Salamis as a trireme commander. His brother Aeschylus, also fought at the battle.
Sicinnus, a Persian according to Plutarch, was a slave of the Athenian leader Themistocles and pedagogue to his children. He is known for his actions as a negotiator between Themistocles and the Persian ruler Xerxes I during the Second Persian invasion of Greece. Sicinnus deceived Xerxes into sending his fleet into Themistocles' trap.
Ariabignes was one of the sons of the Persian king Darius I and his mother was a daughter of Gobryas (Γοβρύας). He participated in the Second Persian invasion of Greece, as one of the four admirals of the fleet of his brother Xerxes I, and was killed in the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. Ariabignes was the commander of the Carian and Ionian forces.
Thessaly or Thessalia was one of the traditional regions of Ancient Greece. During the Mycenaean period, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, a name that continued to be used for one of the major tribes of Greece, the Aeolians, and their dialect of Greek, Aeolic.
Aridolis was a tyrant of Alabanda in Caria, who accompanied the Achaemenid king Xerxes I in his expedition against Greece, and was taken by the Greeks off Artemisium in 480 BCE, and sent to the isthmus of Corinth in chains. His successor may have been Amyntas II.
"They took in one of these ships Aridolis, the despot of Alabanda in Caria, and in another the Paphian captain Penthylus son of Demonous; of twelve ships that he had brought from Paphos he had lost eleven in the storm off the Sepiad headland, and was in the one that remained when he was taken as he bore down on Artemisium. Having questioned these men and learnt what they desired to know of Xerxes' armament, the Greeks sent them away to the isthmus of Corinth in bonds."
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.