Thortveitite

Last updated
Thortveitite
Thortveitite-ea14a.jpg
Thortveitite
General
Category Mineral
Formula
(repeating unit)
(Sc,Y)2Si2O7
Strunz classification 9.BC.05
Crystal system Monoclinic
Crystal class Prismatic (2/m)
(same H-M symbol)
Space group C2/m
Identification
Mohs scale hardness5-6
Luster vitreous
Streak gray
Specific gravity 3.3-3.8

Thortveitite is a rare mineral consisting of scandium yttrium silicate (Sc,Y)2Si2O7. It is the primary source of scandium. Occurrence is in granitic pegmatites. It was named after Olaus Thortveit, a Norwegian engineer. It is grayish-green, black or gray in color. [1] [2] [3] [4]

A transparent gem quality example was found in 2004, and reported in "The Journal of Gemmology". [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

Dysprosium Chemical element, symbol Dy and atomic number 66

Dysprosium is the chemical element with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare-earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. Naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of seven isotopes, the most abundant of which is 164Dy.

Scandium Chemical element, symbol Sc and atomic number 21

Scandium is a chemical element with the symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

Spinel Mineral or gemstone

Spinel is the magnesium/aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. It has the formula MgAl
2
O
4
in the cubic crystal system. Its name comes from the Latin word spinella, which means spine in reference to its pointed crystals.

Ytterby Village in Sweden

Ytterby is a village on the Swedish island of Resarö, in Vaxholm Municipality in the Stockholm archipelago. Today the residential area is dominated by suburban homes.

Group 3 element Group of chemical elements

Group 3 is the first group of transition metals in the periodic table. This group is closely related to the rare-earth elements. Although some controversy exists regarding the composition and placement of this group, it is generally agreed among those who study the matter that this group contains the four elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lutetium (Lu), and lawrencium (Lr). The group is also called the scandium group or scandium family after its lightest member.

Scandium oxide Chemical compound

Scandium(III) oxide or scandia is a inorganic compound with formula Sc2O3. It is one of several oxides of rare earth elements with a high melting point. It is used in the preparation of other scandium compounds as well as in high-temperature systems (for its resistance to heat and thermal shock), electronic ceramics, and glass composition (as a helper material).

Scandium fluoride Chemical compound

Scandium(III) fluoride, ScF3, is an ionic compound. This salt is slightly soluble in water but dissolves in the presence of excess fluoride to form the ScF63− anion.

Luminescence dating refers to a group of methods of determining how long ago mineral grains were last exposed to sunlight or sufficient heating. It is useful to geologists and archaeologists who want to know when such an event occurred. It uses various methods to stimulate and measure luminescence.

Mining in Iran

Mining in Iran is still under development, yet the country is one of the most important mineral producers in the world, ranked among 15 major mineral-rich countries, holding some 68 types of minerals, 37 billion tonnes of proven reserves and more than 57 billion tonnes of potential reserves worth $770 billion in 2014. Mineral production contributes only 0.6 per cent to the country's GDP. Add other mining-related industries and this figure increases to just four per cent (2005). Many factors have contributed to this, namely lack of suitable infrastructure, legal barriers, exploration difficulties, and government control.

Ikaite

Ikaite is the mineral name for the hexahydrate of calcium carbonate, CaCO3·6H2O. Ikaite tends to form very steep or spiky pyramidal crystals, often radially arranged, of varied sizes from thumbnail size aggregates to gigantic salient spurs. It is only found in a metastable state and decomposes rapidly by losing most of its water content once removed from near-freezing water. This "melting mineral" is more commonly known through its pseudomorphs.

Yttrium Chemical element, symbol Y and atomic number 39

Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals, and is never found in nature as a free element. 89Y is the only stable isotope, and the only isotope found in the Earth's crust.

Akwatia Town in Eastern Region, Ghana

Akwatia is a town in Denkyembour, a district in the Eastern region of south Ghana and west of the Atewa Range in the Birim River basin. Akwatia has a 2013 settlement population of 23,766 people. Akwatia is the main center of diamond extraction in Ghana. The town is the center of the Denkyembour parliamentary constituency.

Ixiolite

Ixiolite is an accessory oxide mineral found in granitic pegmatites. It is an oxide with the general chemical formula (Ta,Nb,Sn,Mn,Fe)
4
O
8
or (Ta,Mn,Nb)O
2
.

Redmi Chinese smartphone brand, made by Xiaomi Corporation

Redmi is a sub-brand owned by the Chinese electronics company Xiaomi. It was first announced in July 2013 as a budget smartphone line, and became a separate sub-brand of Xiaomi in 2019 with entry-level and mid-range devices, while Xiaomi itself produces upper-range and flagship Mi phones. Redmi phones use the Xiaomi's MIUI user interface on top of Android. Models are divided into the entry-level Redmi, the mid-range Redmi Note, and the high-end Redmi K. In addition, the unrelated Mi A Android One series is also positioned in the similar market segment with Redmi devices, despite being part of the upper-range Xiaomi Mi lineup. The most significant difference from other Xiaomi smartphones is that they use less-expensive components and thus have lower prices while retaining higher specifications. In August 2014, The Wall Street Journal reported that in the second quarter of the 2014 fiscal year, Xiaomi had a market share of 4% of smartphone shipment rankings in China. Redmi sales were attributed as a contributing factor toward this gain in shipment rankings.

Scandiobabingtonite was first discovered in the Montecatini granite quarry near Baveno, Italy in a pegmatite cavity. Though found in pegmatites, the crystals of scandiobabingtonite are sub-millimeter sized, and are tabular shaped. Scandiobabingtonite was the sixth naturally occurring mineral discovered with the rare earth element scandium, and grows around babingtonite, with which it is isostructural, hence the namesake. It is also referred to as scandian babingtonite. The ideal chemical formula for scandiobabingtonite is Ca2(Fe2+,Mn)ScSi5O14(OH).

Davisite is an exceedingly rare mineral of the pyroxene group, with formula CaScAlSiO6. It is the scandium-dominant member. It stands for scandium-analogue of other pyroxene-group members, esseneite, grossmanite and kushiroite. Davisite is one of scarce minerals containing essential scandium.

Axinite-(Mg)

Axinite-(Mg) is a borosilicate mineral of aluminum, calcium and magnesium of the axinite group, with magnesium as the dominant cation in the place of the structure that can also be occupied by iron and manganese. It was discovered in gem material from Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Manyara Region, Tanzania, which is consequently its type locality. It was initially called magnesioaxinite, referring to its membership in the axinite group and the role of magnesium as the dominant cation. The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) later changed its name to axinite-(Mg). Occasionally it has been carved as a collection gem.

Scandium perchlorate Chemical compound

Scandium perchlorate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Sc(ClO4)3.

An orogenic gold deposit is a type of hydrothermal mineral deposit. More than 75% of the gold recovered by humans through history belongs to the class of orogenic gold deposits. Rock structure is the primary control of orogenic gold mineralization at all scales, as it controls both the transport and deposition processes of the mineralized fluids, creating structural pathways of high permeability and focussing deposition to structurally controlled locations.

References

  1. "Thortveitite Mineral Data". webmineral.com. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  2. "Thortveitite". www.mindat.org. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  3. Bianchi, Riccardo; Pilati, Tullio; Diella, Valeria; Gramaccioli, Carlo Maria; Mannucci, Gregorio (1988-06-01). "A re-examination of thortveitite". American Mineralogist. 73 (5–6): 601–607. ISSN   0003-004X.
  4. Mineralien aus aller Welt. Walter Schumann. München. 1990. ISBN   978-3-405-14003-8. OCLC   610708490.CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. Chapman, R., Mercer, I.F., Rankin, A.H., Spratt, J. (2008). "Thortveitite - a new gemstone" (PDF). Journal of Gemmology. 31: 1–6.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)