Thottappally Spillway is Kuttanad's drain-way out to the Arabian Sea. The Thottappally Spillway splits the Thottappally lake with the fresh water part to the east and saline Thottappally river mouth to the west merging with the Arabian Sea. Thottappally spillway is constructed to spill excess water coming over the Upper Kuttanad and Lower Kuttanad regions through Manimala River, Achancovil River and Pamba River. It is designed such that it could spill off 19,500 cubic meters of water per second, but after its construction it was found that it is able to spill 600 cubic meters of water per second. Reasons for this reduced flow rate are, strong sea breezes during rainy seasons resulting in a rise in sea level relative to the water level of Kuttanad, formation of sand bars on the western area of the spillway and the width of the leading canal is too narrow to carry this much water to the spillway.
The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea, on the southwest by the Somali Sea, and on the east by India. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden in the west, connects the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf.
Upper Kuttanad is a part of India's Kuttanad region. It consists of parts of Kottayam, Pathanamthitta, and Alapuzha districts.
Lower Kuttanad comprises taluks of Ambalapuzha, Kuttanad and northern half of Karthikapally taluk in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India.
Spillway work forms part of the Kuttanad development scheme included in the first five year national plan. Spill way was inaugurated by Sri. Pattom Thanupillai on 5 December 1955.
The Glenmore Reservoir is a large artificial reservoir on the Elbow River in the southwest quadrant of Calgary, Alberta. The Glenmore Dam is the concrete structure that holds back the reservoir. The reservoir is a primary source of drinking water to the city. Built in 1932, with a cost of $3.8 million, the dam controls the downstream flow of the Elbow River, thus allowing the city to develop property near the river's banks with less risk of flooding.
The Gatun Dam is a large earthen dam across the Chagres River in Panama, near the town of Gatun. The dam, constructed between 1907 and 1913, is a crucial element of the Panama Canal; it impounds the artificial Gatun Lake, which in turn carries ships for 33 kilometres (21 mi) of their transit across the Isthmus of Panama. In addition, a hydro-electric generating station at the dam generates electricity which is used to operate the locks and other equipment in the canal.
Oroville Dam is an earthfill embankment dam on the Feather River east of the city of Oroville, California, in the Sierra Nevada foothills east of the Sacramento Valley. At 770 feet (235 m) high, it is the tallest dam in the U.S. and serves mainly for water supply, hydroelectricity generation and flood control. The dam impounds Lake Oroville, the second largest man-made lake in the state of California, capable of storing more than 3.5 million acre feet.
The Daman Ganga also called Dawan River is a river in western India. The river's headwaters are on the western slope of the Western Ghats range, and it flows west into the Arabian Sea. The river flows through Maharashtra and Gujarat states, as well as the Union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The industrial towns of Vapi, Dadra and Silvassa lie on the north bank of the river, and the town of Daman occupies both banks of the river's estuary.
Kuttanad is a region covering the Alappuzha and Kottayam Districts, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its vast paddy fields and geographical peculiarities. The region has the lowest altitude in India, and is one of the few places in the world where farming is carried on around 1.2 to 3.0 metres below sea level. Kuttanadu is historically important in the ancient history of South India and is the major rice producer in the state. Farmers of Kuttanad are famous for Biosaline Farming. FAO has declared the Kuttanad Farming System as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). Four of Kerala's major rivers, the Pamba, Meenachil, Achankovil and Manimala flow into the region. It is well known for its boat race in the Punnamada Backwaters, known in Malayalam as Vallamkalli.
The Pamba River is the third longest river in the South Indian state of Kerala after Periyar and Bharathappuzha and the longest river in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore. Sabarimala temple dedicated to Lord Ayyappa is located on the banks of the river Pamba. In old Hindu Epics, Pampa was Lord Brahma's daughter, who was later married to Lord Shiva.
The Morganza Spillway or Morganza Control Structure is a flood-control structure in the U.S. state of Louisiana along the western bank of the Lower Mississippi River at river mile 280, near Morganza in Pointe Coupee Parish. The spillway stands between the Mississippi and the Morganza Floodway, which leads to the Atchafalaya Basin and the Atchafalaya River in south-central Louisiana. Its purpose is to divert water from the Mississippi River during major flood events by flooding the Atchafalaya Basin, including the Atchafalaya River and the Atchafalaya Swamp. The spillway and adjacent levees also help prevent the Mississippi from changing its present course through the major port cities of Baton Rouge and New Orleans to a new course down the Atchafalaya River to the Gulf of Mexico. The Morganza Spillway, operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, was opened during the 1973 and 2011 Mississippi River floods.
The Fairbairn Dam is an earthfill-filled embankment dam across the Nogoa River, located southwest of Emerald in Central Queensland, Australia. Constructed in 1972 for the primary purpose of irrigation, the impoundment created by the dam serves as one the major potable water supplies for the region and assists with some flood mitigation. Lake Maraboon with an active capacity of 1,301,000 ML (2.86×1011 imp gal; 3.44×1011 US gal) was formed by damming of the Nogoa River, and, in 2008, was Queensland's second largest dam. Maraboon is the Aboriginal for "where the black ducks fly".
Owyhee Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam on the Owyhee River in Eastern Oregon near Adrian, Oregon, United States. Completed in 1932 during the Great Depression, the dam generates electricity and provides irrigation water for several irrigation districts in Oregon and neighboring Idaho. At the time of completion, it was the tallest dam of its type in the world. The dam is part of the Owyhee Dam Historic District, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Spring Creek Debris Dam is an earthfill dam on Spring Creek, a tributary of the Sacramento River, in Shasta County in the U.S. state of California. Completed in 1963, the dam, maintained by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, serves primarily to collect severe acid mine drainage stemming from the Iron Mountain Mine. The dam forms the Spring Creek Reservoir, less than 1 mile (1.6 km) long. Spring Creek and South Fork Spring Creek flow into the reservoir from a 16-square-mile (41 km2) watershed. The dam is directly upstream from the city of Keswick, California and the Keswick Reservoir. The operation is part of the Trinity River Division of the Central Valley Project.
Glen Canyon Dam, a concrete arch dam on the Colorado River in the American state of Arizona, has been associated with a large amount of risk, most notably the risk of its siltation and failure. Because of high silt content carried in by the Colorado and San Juan rivers, Lake Powell is gradually filling with sediment, decreasing its capacity; eventually the sediment will build up against the dam and affect its safe operation.
The Cotter Dam is a concrete gravity and rockfill embankment dam across the Cotter River, located in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. The impounded reservoir is called the Cotter Reservoir which is a supply source of potable water for the city of Canberra and its environs.
Manimala River is a 92 km long river in South and Central Kerala. The river used to be wrongly considered as a tributary of Pamba River before satellite maps became popular, but this is incorrect. Manimala does not flow into Pamba, but a branch of Pamba flows into Manimala from Kuthiathode and joins Manimala at Kallunkal, later branches out at again from Manimala at Nedumpuram and flows through Niranam, Thalavady, Edathua, Changankary, Champakulam, Nedumudy, Chennamkary, and finally Kainakary and empties into Vembanad lake. This branch again links with Manimala river at Chennankary in a short, but broad connection known as Munnattumukham. Manimala is a separate independent river for all geographical purposes. It has its origin on the Muthavara Hills on the Western Ghats, in Idukki district of Kerala, India. The river passes through the districts of Kottayam, Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha districts. Yendayar, Koottickal, Mundakayam, Erumeli, Manimala, Kottangal, Kulathurmoozy, Vaipur, Mallappally, Keezhvaipur, Thuruthicad,komalam,/kuranjoor kadavuKallooppara, [vallamkulam]], Kattode & Kuttoor, Pulikeezh, Nedumpuram, Neerettupuram, Amichakary, Muttar, Kidangara, Pulincunnoo, Veliyanadu, Ramankary, Mankompu lie on the banks of Manimala River. Manimala splits after Kidangara into two branches. Second branch flows via Kunnamkary, Kavalam and Kainakary to Vembanad lake. Its running length is estimated at 92 km. It empties itself into the Vembanad Lake. It is one of the four major rivers which do not have direct outlet to sea as these rivers empty into the vast Vembanad lake. This huge lake has just two outlets, one at Thottappaly Spillway and second at Thannermukkom Bund, both man made barriers, built to prevent incoming seawater during high tides, which otherwise would render the low lying paddyfields uncultivable.
Jiroft Dam is a hydroelectric dam in Iran with an installed electricity generating capability of 85 MWh situated in Kerman Province. The fifth concrete dam built in the country, it was begun in 1975 and completed in 1992. It is located on Halil River (Halilrood) 40 km upstream of Jiroft in the narrow valley of Narab. Its reservoir capacity is around 410 million cubic metres up to the normal level. The maximum height of the dam is 134 m and the crest length is 277 m. The dam in its first water year of operation (1992) survived an extraordinary flood with the peak discharge of 5035 cubic metres per second. The flood had a return period of 800 to 1000 years. The heavy rains of this year caused the dam was filled of water much sooner than the planned water storing duration. The spillways and other hydrodynamic outlets of the dam can manage to discharge up to 6500 cubic meters per seconds . The reservoir is planned to irrigate 14200 hectares of the downstream lands.
The Mississippi River floods in April and May 2011 were among the largest and most damaging recorded along the U.S. waterway in the past century, comparable in extent to the major floods of 1927 and 1993. In April 2011, two major storm systems deposited record levels of rainfall on the Mississippi River watershed. When that additional water combined with the springtime snowmelt, the river and many of its tributaries began to swell to record levels by the beginning of May. Areas along the Mississippi itself experiencing flooding included Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
Thottappally is a village in Alappuzha district in the state of Kerala, India. Thottappally is especially notable for Thottappally Spillway, a spillway cum bridge on the National Highway 66 between Alappuzha and Thiruvananthapuram. The spillway is one of the two regulators used to regulate waterlevel in the paddy fields of Kuttanad, the other being at Thanneermukkom. Thottappally is Kuttanad's drain-way-out to the Arabian Sea. The Thottappally Spillway splits the Thottappally lake with the fresh water part to the east and saline Thottappally rivermouth to the west merging with the Arabian Sea. The beach and fishing harbour of Purakkad, which got into fame through the celebrated film and novel Chemmeen, is adjacent to Thottappally.
Nacimiento Dam is a dam on the Nacimiento River about 10 miles (16 km) northwest of Paso Robles, California in the United States. The primary purpose of the dam is to provide groundwater recharge for agriculture in Monterey County and northern San Luis Obispo County supported by the Salinas Valley aquifer, as well as flood control, domestic water supply, and hydropower. It forms Lake Nacimiento, popular for boating, fishing and camping, and known locally as the "Dragon Lake" due to its shape.
The St. Lucie Canal (C-44) is a man-made canal built in 1916 in Martin County, Florida to divert floodwaters from Lake Okeechobee via the canal to the South Fork of the St. Lucie River and into the St. Lucie Estuary, a component of the Indian River Lagoon, which connects to the Atlantic Ocean. Resulting from this connection, restoration projects in the St. Lucie River are the northernmost component of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.
The Kanjirapuzha Dam, a masonry earth dam built for providing irrigation to a Cultural Command Area (CCA) of 9,713 hectares, is located in the Palakkad district in the Indian state of Kerala. The reservoir, which has three islands within it, also has an established commercial fisheries development programme operated by the Fisheries Department.
Hiyoshi Dam (日吉ダム) is a dam in Nantan, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. The dam construction started in 1992 and was completed in 1996.