Pamba River

Last updated

Pampa River പമ്പ നദി
Pamba.PNG
Labelled map of Pamba
Location
Country India
Physical characteristics
Source 
  locationPulachimala
  elevation1,650 m (5,410 ft)
Mouth  
  location
Vembanad Lake & Thottappally Spillway
Length176 km (109 mi)
Basin size2,235 km2 (863 sq mi)
Discharge 
  average109 m3/s (3,800 cu ft/s)

The Pamba River (also called Pampa River) is the longest river in the Indian state of Kerala after Periyar and Bharathappuzha, and the longest river in the erstwhile former princely state of Travancore. Sabarimala temple dedicated to Lord Ayyappa is located on the banks of the river Pamba.

Contents

The river is also known as 'Dakshina Bhageerathi'. During ancient times it was called 'River Baris' and jordan of malankara [ citation needed ]

The River Pamba enriches the lands of Pathanamthitta District and the Kuttanad area of Alappuzha District and few areas of Kottayam

Course

The Pamba originates at Pulachimalai hill in the Peerumedu plateau in the Western Ghats at an altitude of 1,650 metres (5,410 ft). Starting from the Idukki district and traversing a distance of 176 kilometres (109 mi) through Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha districts, the river joins the Arabian Sea through a number of channels. The basin extends over an area of 2,235 square kilometres (863 sq mi) with the entire catchment area within Kerala state. The basin is bounded on the east by Western Ghats and on the west by Arabian Sea. The river shares its northern boundary with the Manimala River basin, and the southern boundary with the Achankovil River basin.[ citation needed ]

Pamba river at Aranmula pmpaandi.JPG
Pamba river at Aranmula

The river flows through Chittar, Vadasserikkara, Ranni, Ayroor, Cherukole, Keezhukara, Kozhencherry, Maramon, Aranmula, Arattupuzha, Edanad, Puthencavu, Chengannur, Kallissery, Pandanad, Parumala, Mannar, Kadapra, Melpadom, Thevery, Veeyapuram, Thakazhy, Pullangady, Pallathuruthy before emptying into the Vembanad Lake, while another branch flows directly via Karuvatta into Thottappally Spillway. One branch of Pamba called Varattar flows from Arattupuzha/Puthenkavu and along Edanad, Othera, Thiruvanvandoor, Eramallikkara and flows into Manimala River at Kallumkal East side. Another branch of Pamba flows from Kuthiathode and joins with Manimala River at Kallumkal West side, and branches out again at Nedumpuram from Manimala River and flows along Thalavady, Edathua, Champakulam, Pullangady, Nedumudy and empties into Vembanad Lake at Kainakary. This branch links with Mainstream Pamba River at Pullangady while continuing to flow to Vembanad lake. One branch of Achankovil River joins with Pamba at Paippad/Veeyapuram, while another branch flows into Pamba again via Karichal, Cheruthana. Perunthenaruvi is the major waterfall in Pamba river between vechoochira and Athikkayam [1]

Tributaries

Topography of the basin, reservoirs and command area

Like all the river basins in Kerala, the Pamba basin also can be divided into three natural zones based on elevation, consisting of low land or seaboard, midland and high land. The coast for a short distance along the borders of lakes is flat, retreating from it the surface roughens up into slopes which gradually combine and swell into mountains on the east. The low land area along sea coast is generally swampy and liable to be flooded during monsoon inundation. The plains/midlands succeed low land in gentle ascents and valleys interspersed with isolated low hills. The high land on the eastern portion is broken by long spurs, dense forests, extensive ravines and tangled jungles. Towering above all their slopes are Western Ghats that form eastern boundary of the basins.[ citation needed ]

Endangered state

Information board near Nadappanthal, Sabarimala to keep Pamba clean Clean Pamba Campaign.JPG
Information board near Nadappanthal, Sabarimala to keep Pamba clean

Due to drought and a lack of conservation and protection by the government, the Pampa River has shrunk to a stream and is totally dry in many places. Nearby wells have also dried up. Water for farming, such as paddy fields, is scarce. Experts are calling for governmental awareness of the dire situation and the need to rein in development that is destroying the environment. [2]

The Kerala High Court has initiated steps to control the pollution of the river from the practice of some visitors to Sabarimala who throw their clothes into it. [3] As part of the Punyam Poonkavanam project, pilgrims have been exhorted to avoid the usage of soap and oil while bathing in River Pamba. They are also requested not to throw any material, including clothes, to this holy river. At a broader level, this project aims to spread the message of cleanliness and greenness beyond Pamba and Sabarimala. [4]

Significance in Hinduism

Pamba River near Sabarimala Pamba near sabarimala.jpg
Pamba River near Sabarimala

Lord Ayyappan (Sri Dharmasastha) appeared to the Pandalam Raja as a child on the banks of the Pamba River. The Pamba River has been venerated as Ganga of kerala, and devotees of Lord Ayyappan believe that immersing oneself in the Pamba is equivalent to bathing in the Holy Ganges River. Bathing in the river, believed to absolve one's sins, is a requirement before commencing the trek through the forest to the Ayyappan Temple atop Sabarimala. The river pamba flowing in kerala state has many famous temple in its banks other than the Sabarimala.Tiruvalla Sreevallabhapuram temple, Adoor Mannar Temple, Aranmula temple, Chenganoor Mahadeva temple, Thakazhy Sree Dharma Sastha Temple are most famous few among them. The lake or Saras mentioned in Ramayana is Pamba saras and that is the basin of Present Tungabhadra river and the sabariyasram also situated very near. Then the old Kishkindha(Monkey city) or present day Hampi( UNESCO heritage site) also situated near that pamba saras near Hampi.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alappuzha district</span> District in Kerala, India

Alappuzha district, is one of the 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala. It was formed as Alleppey district on 17 August 1957, the name of the district being changed to Alappuzha in 1990, and is the smallest district of Kerala. Alleppey town, the district headquarters, was renamed Alappuzha in 2012, even though the anglicised name is still commonly used to describe the town as well as the district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ayyappan</span> Hindu deity

Ayyappan, also called Dharmasastha and Manikandan, is a Hindu deity popular in Southern India, He is considered to be the epitome of dharma, truth, and righteousness and is often called upon to obliterate evil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pathanamthitta district</span> District in Kerala, India

Pathanamthitta District, is one of the 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala. The district headquarters is in the town of Pathanamthitta. There are four municipalities in Pathanamthitta: Adoor, Pandalam, Pathanamthitta and Thiruvalla.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sabarimala</span> Hindu temple in Kerala, India

The Sabarimala Temple is a temple complex located at Sabarimala hill inside the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the Perinad Village, Pathanamthitta district, Kerala, India. It is one of the largest annual pilgrimage sites in the world with an estimate of over 10 to 15 million devotees visiting every year. The temple is dedicated to a Hindu Brahmachari (Celibate) deity Ayyappan also known as Dharma Shasta, who according to belief is the son of Shiva and Mohini, the feminine incarnation of Vishnu. The traditions of Sabarimala are a confluence of Shaivism, Vaishnavism, and other Śramaṇa traditions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kuttanad</span> Region in Kerala, India

Kuttanad is a region covering the Alappuzha, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta Districts, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its vast paddy fields and geographical peculiarities. The region has the lowest altitude in India, and is one of the few places in the world where farming is carried on around 1.2 to 3.0 metres below sea level. Kuttanad is historically important in the ancient history of South India and is the major rice producer in the state. Farmers of Kuttanad are famous for Biosaline Farming. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has declared the Kuttanad Farming System as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS).

Ayroor is a village located in the western part of Ranni taluk, in the Pathanamthitta district in Kerala state, India. It is bordered by hills and located near the Western Ghats. Ayroor was previously part of Thiruvalla taluk in Alleppey district and is considered part of the Edanadu region in Kerala. The Pamba River flows on the southern side of the village.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aranmula</span> Village in Kerala

Aranmula is a temple town in the state of Kerala, India. It is known as the cultural capital of Pathanamthitta district, located at a distance of around 116 km from Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, it is situated on the banks of the river Pampa. A centre of pilgrimage from time immemorial and a trade post of eminence, when the river was the chief means of transport, it is near Kozhenchery in Pathanamthitta District. It is easily accessible from Thiruvalla & Chengannur railway stations.It is located around 14 km from Thiruvalla City Centre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Achankovil</span> River in India

Achankovil is a 128 km long west flowing river in Kerala, India, which flows through Kollam, Pathanamthitta, and Alappuzha districts. The river drains vast tract of fertile plains of Upper Kuttanad in the Alappuzha and Pathanamthitta districts. It also sustains numerous urban settlements along its course such as Konni, Pathanamthitta, Pandalam, Mavelikkara etc.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pandalam</span> Municipality in Kerala, India

Pandalam is a municipal town in Pathanamthitta district Kerala, India. Pandalam is considered a holy town due to its connection with Lord Ayyappa and Sabarimala. Rightly recognised to be the educational and cultural capital of Central Travancore, Pandalam hosts educational institutions ranging from reputed schools to post graduate, training, Ayurveda, and engineering colleges. There are seven colleges and 23 schools at Pandalam, including N. S. S. College, Pandalam. The Kerala state government plans to make the place a special Township, by including the Pandalam municipality and Kulanada panchayat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chengannur</span> Municipal Town in Kerala, India

Chengannur is a Municipality in the Alappuzha district of Kerala State, India. It is located in the extreme eastern part of the Alappuzha district, on the banks of Pamba River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pathanamthitta</span> Town in Kerala, India

Pathanamthitta, is a municipality situated in the Central Travancore region in the state of Kerala, India, spread over an area of 23.50 km2. It is the administrative capital of Pathanamthitta district. The town has a population of 37,538. The Hindu pilgrim centre Sabarimala is situated in the Pathanamthitta district; as the main transport hub to Sabarimala, the town is known as the 'Pilgrim Capital of Kerala'. Pathanamthitta District, the thirteenth revenue district of the State of Kerala, was formed with effect from 1 November 1982, with headquarters at Pathanamthitta. Forest covers more than half of the total area of the District. Pathanamthitta District ranks the 7th in area in the State. The district has its borders with Allepey, Kottayam, Kollam and Idukki districts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.Nearest City Is Thiruvalla,Located At A Distance Of 30 km .Thiruvalla Railway Station Is 30 km via Thiruvalla-Kumbazha Highway.Buses Ply Every 4 Minutes From Thiruvalla To Pathanamthitta & Vice Versa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple</span> Hindu temple of Krishna near Aranmula, India

The Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple is a Hindu temple located near Aranmula, a village in Pathanamthitta District, Kerala, South India. It is dedicated to the god Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, who is worshipped as Parthasarathy. Constructed in the Kerala style of architecture, it is one of the "Divya Desams", the 108 temples of Vishnu revered by the Alvar saints.

Perunad (Ranni-Perunad) is a scenic hilly village in Pathanamthitta district, Kerala state, India.Nearest Railway Station Is Thiruvalla Located At A Distance Of 62 km. It's located on the banks of Pamba River and Kakkadu River.

Kottathur is a settlement in Ayroor village situated on the eastern part of Ayroor Village of Pathanamthitta district in Kerala state, India. The Pamba River flows by the southern side of the settlement, providing fertile soil. The settlement is in the parliamentary constituency of Pathanamthitta; the representative is Mr.Anto Antony.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manimala River</span> River in India

Manimala River or Manimalayar is a 92km long river which flows through South and Central Kerala. The river used to be wrongly considered as a tributary of Pamba River before satellite maps became popular, but this was proved incorrect. Manimala does not flow into the Pamba, instead a distributary of the Pamba river flows into the Manimala river at Kallunkal, later branches out again from Manimala at Nedumpuram and flows through Niranam, Thalavady, Edathua, Changankary, Champakulam, Nedumudy, Chennamkary, and finally Kainakary and then empties into the Vembanad lake. This branch again links with Manimala river at Chennankary in a short, but broad connection known as Munnattumukham.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Azhuthayar</span> River

Azhuthayar is a tributary of the Pamba River, the third longest river in the South Indian state of Kerala. It originates from Peerumedu, flows through dense forests and reaches Koruthodu. From there it forms the boundary between Kottayam and Idukki districts. It then crosses Sabarimala traditional trekking path at Kalaketti area before joining with Pamba river at Kanamala(Pambavalley). Like its parent river, it is also closely related to the legend of Lord Ayyappan, a popular Hindu deity worshipped mainly in Kerala. It flows through a place also named Azhutha, which is on the Sabarimala trek route from Erumeli to Sabarimala. The river Pamba, ultimately flows around 180 kilometres (112 mi) through towns and villages Ranni, Cherukolpuzha, Kozhencherry, Maramon, Aranmula, Chengannur, Parumala, Neerettupuram, Kavalam, Nedumudi and Thakazhy before joining Vembanad lake.

Varattar is a branch of the Pamba River, the third longest river in the South Indian state of Kerala.It is a 9.5 km long water channel that in the past connected and linked the Pampa to the Manimala River. It flows through the outskirts of Chengannur, Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha. Its a perennial freshwater source linking two rivers in Alappuzha and Pathanamthitta districts. But greatly diminished instream flow due to encroachments, sand mining and weed growth have severely affected the size and strength of Varattar and it became a river with no water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chengannur railway station</span> 3rd main station in alleppy

Chengannur railway station is an 'NSG 3 category' station located at Chengannur in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the busiest stations in the Thiruvananthapuram Central–Kollam Junction–Kottayam–Ernakulam route, primarily due to the Sabarimala pilgrims. The station is managed by Southern Railway under the Thiruvananthapuram railway division. Chengannur railway station mainly serves the people of Alappuzha and Pathanamthitta district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pandalam dynasty</span> Early dynasty in Kerala

Pandalam dynasty a royal dynasty emerged from a branch of Pandya kingdom. which existed in Kerala during the Kollam era. They came to Kerala fearing the assault of the Nayaks of Madurai. In Kerala they were given land and status by Kaipuzha Thampan of Nilambur Kovilakam a landlord who lived in Amanthur Palace at Kaipuzha from Kottayam Kerala. Today Pandalam is part of Pathanamthitta, Kerala, India.

Devarmala is a huge peak in the Western Ghats of Kerala. It stands at an altitude of 1,923m. It is located in Pathanamthitta District of Kerala, right next to the border with Thirunelveli District of Tamil Nadu. It is the last of the peaks located just north of the biogeographically important seven kilometers wide "Schencottah Pass" or "Schencottah Gap" or 'Aryankavu Pass'.

References

  1. "Home page of Pampa Parirakshana Samithy Kerala State India". www.savepampa.org. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  2. Kuttoor, Radhakrishnan (7 March 2014). "As Pampa shrinks, life ebbs away". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  3. "Temple plans to challenge ban on throwing clothes in Pamba river". Mathrubhumi. 21 November 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  4. "VSC supports Sabarimala Clean Drive 'Punyam Poonkavanam'".
Sources

Coordinates: 9°30′N76°25′E / 9.500°N 76.417°E / 9.500; 76.417