Three-process view

Last updated

The three-process view is a psychological term coined by Janet E. Davidson and Robert Sternberg.

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.

Robert J. Sternberg is an American psychologist and psychometrician. He is Professor of Human Development at Cornell University. Prior to joining Cornell, Sternberg was president of the University of Wyoming. He has been Provost and Professor at Oklahoma State University, Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tufts University, IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University. He is a member of the editorial boards of numerous journals, including American Psychologist. He was the past President for the American Psychological Association.

According to this concept, there are three kinds of insight: selective-encoding, selective-comparison, and selective-combination. [1]

Selective-encoding insight – Distinguishing what is important in a problem and what is irrelevant. (i.e. filter)
Selective-comparison insight – Identifying information by finding a connection between acquired knowledge and experience.
Selective-combination insight – Identifying a problem through understanding the different components and putting everything together.

Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it. Terms in philosophy such as "empirical knowledge" or "a posteriori knowledge" are used to refer to knowledge based on experience. A person with considerable experience in a specific field can gain a reputation as an expert. The concept of experience generally refers to know-how or procedural knowledge, rather than propositional knowledge: on-the-job training rather than book-learning.

Related Research Articles

Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible or a physical object.

Benchmarking is the practice of comparing business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost.

Decision-making cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities

In psychology, decision-making is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action.

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by, Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information. Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation, dissipation, and transformation.

UTF-7 is a variable-length character encoding that was proposed for representing Unicode text using a stream of ASCII characters. It was originally intended to provide a means of encoding Unicode text for use in Internet E-mail messages that was more efficient than the combination of UTF-8 with quoted-printable.

Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. It is a characteristic of children, variously defined, that motivates differences in school programming. It is thought to persist as a trait into adult life, with various consequences studied in longitudinal studies of giftedness over the last century. There is no generally agreed definition of giftedness for either children or adults, but most school placement decisions and most longitudinal studies over the course of individual lives have followed people with IQs in the top two percent of the population—that is, IQs above 130. Definitions of giftedness also vary across cultures.

In psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence are factors of general intelligence, originally identified by Raymond Cattell. Concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence were further developed by Cattell's student John L. Horn.

The triarchic theory of intelligence was formulated by Robert J. Sternberg, a prominent figure in research of human intelligence. The theory by itself was among the first to go against the psychometric approach to intelligence and take a more cognitive approach. The three meta components are also called triarchic components.

The triangular theory of love is a theory of love developed by Robert Sternberg, a member of the Psychology Department at Yale University. During his time as a professor, Sternberg emphasized his research in the fields of intelligence, creativity, wisdom, leadership, thinking styles, ethical reasoning, love, and hate. In the context of interpersonal relationships, "the three components of love, according to the triangular theory, are an intimacy component, a passion component, and a decision/commitment component."

Insight is the understanding of a specific cause and effect within a specific context. The term insight can have several related meanings:

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods in an orderly manner to find solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, or medicine are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology.

Self-knowledge is a term used in psychology to describe the information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?".

Insight is a sudden understanding of a problem or a strategy that aids in solving a problem. Usually, this involves conceptualizing the problem in a completely new way. Although insights may appear to be sudden, they are actually the result of prior thought and effort. While insight can be involved in solving well-structured problems, it is more often associated with ill-structured problems.

Mechanism of action biochemical interaction through which a drug produces its pharmacological effect

In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect. A mechanism of action usually includes mention of the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor. Receptor sites have specific affinities for drugs based on the chemical structure of the drug, as well as the specific action that occurs there. Drugs that do not bind to receptors produce their corresponding therapeutic effect by simply interacting with chemical or physical properties in the body. Common examples of drugs that work in this way are antacids and laxatives.

Selective amnesia is a type of amnesia in which the victim loses certain parts of their memory. Common elements that may be forgotten: relationships, special talents, where they live, abilities in certain areas, and events such as concerts, shows, or traumatic events.

TRPM3 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM3 gene.

<i>Ectenosaurus</i> genus of reptiles (fossil)

Ectenosaurus is an extinct genus of marine lizard belonging to the mosasaur family. It is classified as part of the Plioplatecarpinae subfamily alongside genera like Angolasaurus and Platecarpus. Ectenosaurus is exclusively known from the Santonian of Kansas and Texas.

Nelotanserin chemical compound

Nelotanserin is a drug developed by Arena Pharmaceuticals which acts as an inverse agonist on the serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT2A and was under development for the treatment of insomnia. It was shown to be effective and well-tolerated in clinical trials, but development was halted in December 2008 because the substance did not meet the trial's effectiveness endpoints. Research continues on newer analogues which may potentially be more successful. More recently, nelotanserin has been repurposed for the treatment of Lewy body disease. As of 2017, it is in phase II clinical trials for this indication.

ASIC4 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Acid-sensing ion channel 4 (ASIC4) also known as amiloride-sensitive cation channel 4 (ACCN4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ASIC4 gene. The ASIC4 gene is one of the five paralogous genes that encode proteins that form trimeric acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mammals. The cDNA of this gene was first cloned in 2000. The ASIC genes have splicing variants that encode different proteins that are called isoforms.


  1. Davidson, 1995,2003
    Sternberg, R. J., & Davidson, J. E. (Eds.). (1984). Conceptions of giftedness. New York: Cambridge University Press. Google Books at