Three Eras

Last updated

The Three Eras is a Judeo-Christian scheme of periods in historiography, called also Vaticinium Eliae (prophecy of Elijah or Elias). A three-period division of time appears in the Babylonian Talmud: the period before the giving of the law ( Torah ); the period subject to the law; and the period of the Messiah. This scheme was later adapted to Christian use, with three periods corresponding to the persons of the Trinity. In that form it was taken up by Joachim of Fiore; [1] it had been held in a similar form a little earlier by the Amalricians. [2]

After the Protestant Reformation the scheme of the "prophecy of Elias" was popularised by Philip Melanchthon and his Lutheran collaborators, using Carion's Chronicle as a vehicle, heavily edited into due form. The three periods were 'without the law', 'under law', and 'under grace'. [3] With each period attributed a length of two millennia, the scheme was applied to predict the end of time (or at least the commencement of a final seventh millennium). This was done by Johann Heinrich Alsted in the 17th century. [4] The scheme was widely influential in its tripartite structure, seen also in the chronology of Achilles Pirmin Gasser. [5]

See also

Notes

  1. Lloyd S. Kramer, Lloyd Kramer, Sarah C. Maza, Sarah Maza, A Companion to Western Historical Thought (2006), p. 83; Google Books.
  2. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Amalricians"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. G. J. R. Parry, A Protestant Vision: William Harrison and the Reformation of Elizabethan England (2002), p. 97; Google Books
  4. Howard Hotson, Paradise Postponed: Johann Heinrich Alsted and the birth of Calvinist millenarianism (2000), p. 52; Google Books
  5. Robert S. Westman, The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order, pp. 119–120.

Related Research Articles

German literature literature written in the German language

German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany, Austria, the German parts of Switzerland and Belgium, Liechtenstein, South Tyrol in Italy and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is mostly in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects.

Inquisition group of institutions within the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy

The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical parlance also referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy. The Inquisition started in 12th-century France to combat religious dissent, in particular the Cathars and the Waldensians. Other groups investigated later included the Spiritual Franciscans, the Hussites and the Beguines. Beginning in the 1250s, inquisitors were generally chosen from members of the Dominican Order, replacing the earlier practice of using local clergy as judges. The term Medieval Inquisition covers these courts up to mid-15th century.

Johann Heinrich Alsted German minister

Johann Heinrich Alsted, "the true parent of all the Encyclopædias", was a German-born Transylvanian Saxon Calvinist minister and academic, known for his varied interests: in Ramism and Lullism, pedagogy and encyclopedias, theology and millenarianism. His contemporaries noted that an anagram of Alstedius was sedulitas, meaning "hard work" in Latin.

Joachim of Fiore Italian abbot

Joachim of Fiore, also known as Joachim of Flora and in Italian Gioacchino da Fiore, was an Italian theologian and the founder of the monastic order of San Giovanni in Fiore. According to theologian Bernard McGinn, "Joachim of Fiore is the most important apocalyptic thinker of the whole medieval period."

Protestant Reformers occupation

Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.

Joachimites

The Joachimites, also known as Joachites, a millenarian group, arose from the Franciscans in the thirteenth century. They based their ideas on the prior works of Joachim of Fiore, though rejecting the Church of their day more strongly than he had.

In Christian eschatology, Historicism is a method of interpretation of biblical prophecies which associates symbols with historical persons, nations or events. The main primary texts of interest to Christian historicists include apocalyptic literature, such as the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation. It sees the prophecies of Daniel as being fulfilled throughout history, extending from the past through the present to the future. It is sometimes called the continuous historical view. Commentators have also applied historicist methods to ancient Jewish history, to the Roman Empire, to Islam, to the Papacy, to the Modern era, and to the end time.

Robert G. Clouse was born in Mansfield, Ohio, in 1931. He died May 7, 2016 in Terre Haute, Indiana. He was Professor Emeritus at Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana. He married Bonnidell Barrows in 1955 and has two sons, Gary and Kenneth.

Telesphorus of Cosenza was a name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of the Western Schism. As an pseudonymous author of a Latin work Liber de magnis tribulationibus, the name was attached to a 1365 production of the Fraticelli. The Liber was updated to fit the situation in the Schism.

Francisco Ribera Spanish theologian

Francisco Ribera (1537–1591) was a Spanish Jesuit theologian, identified with the Futurist Christian eschatological view.

Protestantism Division within Christianity, originating with the 16th century Reformation, that now numbers 40% of all Christians

Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with a total of 800 million to a billion adherents worldwide or about 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than also by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.

Cessationism versus continuationism is a Christian theological dispute concerned with the question whether the spiritual gifts remain available to the church, or whether their operation ceased with the apostolic age of the church, or soon thereafter. The cessationist doctrine arose in the Protestant Reformation, initially in response to claims of Roman Catholic miracles. The modern controversy is more focused on the use of charismatic gifts in the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements.

Johann Carion German astrologer and historical writer

Johann Carion was a German astrologer, known also for historical writings.

The Melanchthon Circle was a 16th-century Lutheran intellectual network centred on the University of Wittenberg in Germany, and its leading theologian Philip Melanchthon. It was identified as significant for its interests in natural philosophy by Lynn Thorndike, in a chapter "The Circle of Melanchthon" in his multi-volume History of Magic and Experimental Science. Among this circle were found many of the most important early proponents of the heliocentric model of Copernicus. They included Caspar Peucer who became Melanchthon's son-in-law, Erasmus Reinhold, and Georg Joachim Rheticus. Patronage came from Albert, Duke of Prussia.

Resistance theory is an aspect of political thought, discussing the basis on which constituted authority may be resisted, by individuals or groups. In the European context it came to prominence as a consequence of the religious divisions in the early modern period that followed the Protestant Reformation. Resistance theories could justify disobedience on religious grounds to monarchs, and were significant in European national politics and international relations in the century leading up to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. They can also underpin and justify the concept of revolution as now understood. The resistance theory of the early modern period can be considered to predate the formulations of natural and legal rights of citizens, and to co-exist with considerations of natural law.

Luis del Alcázar theologian

Luis del Alcázar (1554–1613) was a Spanish Jesuit theologian.

Antonius Walaeus Dutch Calvinist minister, theologian, and academic

Antonius Walaeus was a Dutch Calvinist minister, theologian, and academic.

Jacopo Brocardo was an Italian Protestant convert and biblical interpreter. He regarded the year 1584 as the inauguration of a major new cycle. He prophesied that the last age would last 120 years from the birth of Martin Luther in 1483. As an apocalyptic thinker he was influenced by Martin Cellarius.

Historicism, a method of interpretation in Christian eschatology which associates biblical prophecies with actual historical events and identifies symbolic beings with historical persons or societies, has been applied to the Book of Revelation by many writers. The Historicist view follows a straight line of continuous fulfillment of prophecy which starts in Daniel's time and goes through John's writing of the Book of Revelation all the way to the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.