Thulite

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Thulite
Thulite.jpg
Thulite from Leksvik, Norway.
General
Category Sorosilicate variety
Formula
(repeating unit)
(Ca,Mn)2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH)
Crystal system Orthorhombic
Identification
ColorPink
Crystal habit Massive
Cleavage Perfect {010} imperfect {100}
Fracture Uneven to conchoidal
Mohs scale hardness6.5
Luster Vitreous, pearly on cleavage surfaces
Streak White or colorless
Specific gravity 3.10-3.38
Optical propertiesbiaxial positive
Refractive index 1.69-1.70
Birefringence 0.006-0.018
Pleochroism Present, dichroism or trichroism depending on color.

Thulite (sometimes called rosaline) is a translucent, crystalline or massive pink manganese-bearing variety of the mineral zoisite. Manganese substitutes for calcium in the structure with up to two percent Mn2+. [1] Thulite is often mottled with white calcite and occurs as veins and fracture fillings transecting many types of rock. In mineralogical literature, thulite may sometimes refer to any pink zoisite. Clinothulite is the manganese bearing variety of monoclinic clinozoisite. [2]

Thulite was first discovered at a place called Sauland in Telemark, Norway in 1820. [3] It is named after the mythical island of Thule in the belief that the island is Scandinavia. [3] Thulite is used as a gemstone and carving material in the manufacture of jewelry and ornamental objects.

Thulite is also found in the Austrian Tyrol and in Mitchell County, North Carolina. A new, more recent find of a small quantity of thulite was discovered near Riverside in Okanogan County, Washington, US [3] and in Snillfjord i Trøndelag, Norway during tunnel constructions in December 2018. [4] Thulite is also found in New Zealand in the Otago region of the South Island.

Thulite is also found in Namibia. The occurrence is spread through out the Namib Desert and generally has ridges with a NE to SW setting. The color can be highly variable with most deposits being greenish in nature, but on occasion the desirable pink color is to be found.[ citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

Beryl Gemstone: beryllium aluminium silicate

Beryl ( BERR-əl) is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium silicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2Si6O18. Well-known varieties of beryl include emerald and aquamarine. Naturally occurring, hexagonal crystals of beryl can be up to several meters in size, but terminated crystals are relatively rare. Pure beryl is colorless, but it is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colors are green, blue, yellow, pink, and red (the rarest). It is an ore source of beryllium.

Tourmaline Cyclosilicate mineral group

Tourmaline is a crystalline silicate mineral group in which boron is compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is a gemstone and can be found in a wide variety of colors.

Hornblende Complex inosilicate series of minerals

Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. It is not a recognized mineral in its own right, but the name is used as a general or field term, to refer to a dark amphibole. Hornblende minerals are common in igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Lepidolite

Lepidolite is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group of minerals with chemical formula K(Li,Al)3(Al,Si,Rb)4O10(F,OH)2. It is the most abundant lithium-bearing mineral and is a secondary source of this metal. It is the major source of the alkali metal rubidium.

Rhodochrosite Mineral of manganese carbonate

Rhodochrosite is a manganese carbonate mineral with chemical composition MnCO3. In its (rare) pure form, it is typically a rose-red color, but impure specimens can be shades of pink to pale brown. It streaks white, and its Mohs hardness varies between 3.5 and 4. Its specific gravity is between 3.5 and 3.7. It crystallizes in the trigonal system, and cleaves with rhombohedral carbonate cleavage in three directions. Crystal twinning often is present. It is transparent to translucent with refractive indices of =1.814 to 1.816, =1.596 to 1.598. It is often confused with the manganese silicate, rhodonite, but is distinctly softer. It is officially listed as one of the National symbols of Argentina.

Serpentine subgroup Family of hydrous ferromagnesian minerals

The serpentine subgroup are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks. They are used as a source of magnesium and asbestos, and as a decorative stone. The name is thought to come from the greenish color being that of a serpent.

Zoisite Sorosilicate mineral

Zoisite, first known as saualpite, after its type locality, is a calcium aluminium hydroxy sorosilicate belonging to the epidote group of minerals. Its chemical formula is Ca2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH).

Staurolite Reddish brown to black nesosilicate mineral

Staurolite is a reddish brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, has a Mohs hardness of 7 to 7.5 and the chemical formula: Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O,OH)2. Magnesium, zinc and manganese substitute in the iron site and trivalent iron can substitute for aluminium.

Epidote Sorosilicate mineral

Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral.

Smithsonite Mineral of zinc carbonate

Smithsonite, also known as zinc spar, is the mineral form of zinc carbonate (ZnCO3). Historically, smithsonite was identified with hemimorphite before it was realized that they were two different minerals. The two minerals are very similar in appearance and the term calamine has been used for both, leading to some confusion. The distinct mineral smithsonite was named in 1832 by François Sulpice Beudant in honor of English chemist and mineralogist James Smithson (c.1765–1829), who first identified the mineral in 1802.

Pyrolusite

Pyrolusite is a mineral consisting essentially of manganese dioxide (MnO2) and is important as an ore of manganese. It is a black, amorphous appearing mineral, often with a granular, fibrous, or columnar structure, sometimes forming reniform crusts. It has a metallic luster, a black or bluish-black streak, and readily soils the fingers. The specific gravity is about 4.8. Its name is from the Greek for fire and to wash, in reference to its use as a way to remove tints from glass.

Rhodonite Single chain manganese inosilicate (MnSiO3)

Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name comes from the Greek ῥόδος rhodos, rosy), often tending to brown because of surface oxidation.

Vesuvianite Silicate mineral

Vesuvianite, also known as idocrase, is a green, brown, yellow, or blue silicate mineral. Vesuvianite occurs as tetragonal crystals in skarn deposits and limestones that have been subjected to contact metamorphism. It was first discovered within included blocks or adjacent to lavas on Mount Vesuvius, hence its name. Attractive-looking crystals are sometimes cut as gemstones. Localities which have yielded fine crystallized specimens include Mount Vesuvius and the Ala Valley near Turin, Piedmont.

Clinozoisite

Clinozoisite is a complex calcium aluminium sorosilicate mineral with formula: Ca2Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH). It forms a continuous solid solution series with epidote by substitution of iron(III) in the aluminium (m3 site) and is also called aluminium epidote.

Seamanite

Seamanite, named for discoverer Arthur E. Seaman, is a rare manganese boron phosphate mineral with formula Mn3[B(OH)4](PO4)(OH)2. The yellow to pink mineral occurs as small, needle-shaped crystals. It was first discovered in 1917 from a mine in Iron County, Michigan, United States and identified in 1930. As of 2012, seamanite is known from four sites in Michigan and South Australia.

Sauland Village in Eastern Norway, Norway

Sauland is a village (parish) and the administrative center in Hjartdal municipality in Telemark county. The population is above 800 people in 2016, which equates over half of all households in the whole municipality. The village is placed in the south/east corner of the municipality and is one of the three parishes in Hjartdal. The place was until Notodden was founded, a center in Aust-Telemark, and had at this time the magistrate for the district. Until 1860 it had its own separate stave church, which was torn down and replaced with the wooden church that stands today.

Manganoan calcite

Manganoan calcite or manganocalcite is a variety of calcite rich in manganese, which gives the mineral a pink color. Its chemical formula is (Ca,Mn)CO3. It was first reported from the Banská Štiavnica Mining District, Slovak Republic, but is widely distributed around the world, notably in the Cave of Swords at Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico as well as in Bulgaria.

Serandite Mineral

Serandite is a mineral with formula Na(Mn2+,Ca)2Si3O8(OH). The mineral was discovered in Guinea in 1931 and named for J. M. Sérand. Serandite is generally red, brown, black or colorless. The correct name lacks an accent.

Caryopilite

Caryopilite (synonymous with ectropite and ektropite) is a brown-colored mineral with formula (Mn2+,Mg)3Si2O5(OH)4. The mineral was discovered in 1889 from a mine in Sweden. It was named for the Greek words for walnut and felt in reference to its appearance.

Manganopyhllite is a manganese-rich variety of biotite. It was first discovered in the Harstigen mine in Sweden. The mineral was first described in 1890. The earliest use is from Edward Dana.

References

  1. Deer, Howie and Zussman, An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals, Longman, 1966, p. 62, ISBN   0-582-44210-9
  2. http://www.mindat.org/min-27132.html Mindat - Clinothulite
  3. 1 2 3 Mindat with location data
  4. "Uventet funn av rosa stein får hobbygeologer til å juble". 9 December 2018.