Thyraion (Ancient Greek : Θυραῖον, Latin : Thyraeum) was a city in Arcadia, ancient Greece. It was already ruined in the 2nd century AD, when it was visited by Pausanias. It was near Hypsous (present Stemnitsa), Zoetia and Paroria. Thyraion was founded by Thyraeus, a son of Lycaon. The location of Thyraion has been identified with that of the present village Pavlia, north of Megalopoli.
Arcadia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the central and eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. It takes its name from the mythological figure Arcas. In Greek mythology, it was the home of the god Pan. In European Renaissance arts, Arcadia was celebrated as an unspoiled, harmonious wilderness.
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second-century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations. This work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as:
A careful, pedestrian writer...interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is occasionally careless or makes unwarranted inferences, and his guides or even his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, and his value without par.
Maenalus or Mainalos was a town of ancient Arcadia, and the capital of the district Maenalia (Μαιναλία), which formed part of the territory of Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city. Maenalus was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions a temple of Athena, a stadium, and a hippodrome, as belonging to the place.
Thocnia or Thoknia, or Thocneia or Thokneia (Θώκνεια), was a town of ancient Arcadia in the district Parrhasia, situated upon a height on the river Aminius, which flows into the Helisson, a tributary of the Alpheius. The town was said to have been founded by Thocnus, a son of Lycaon, and was deserted in the time of Pausanias, as its inhabitants had been removed to Megalopolis.
Trapezus or Trapezous, also known as Trapezuntus or Trapezountos (Τραπεζοῦντος), was a town of ancient Arcadia, in the district Parrhasia, a little to the left of the river Alpheius. It is said to have derived its name from its founder Trapezeus, the son of Lycaon, or from trapeza because Zeus here overturned the table on which Lycaon offered him human food. It was the royal residence of Hippothous, who transferred the seat of government from Tegea to Trapezus. On the foundation of Megalopolis, in 371 BCE, the inhabitants of Trapezus refused to remove to the new city; and having thus incurred the anger of the other Arcadians, they quitted Peloponnesus, and took refuge in Trapezus on the Pontus Euxeinus, where they were received as a kindred people. The statues of some of their gods were removed to Megalopolis, where they were seen by Pausanias.
Daseae or Daseai, also known as Dasea (Δασέα), was a town of ancient Arcadia in the district Parrhasia. It was situated on the road from Megalopolis to Phigalea, 7 stadia from Macareae, and 29 stadia from Megalopolis. It was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, as its inhabitants had been removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter (371 BCE). Its name was apparently derived from the thick woods.
Helisson was a town in ancient Arcadia, Greece. It was situated in the district Maenalia, situated on Mount Maenalus near the territory of Mantineia, near the source of the river Helisson, a tributary of the Alpheius. According to Greek mythology, the town was founded by Helisson, a son of Lycaon.
Zoetia or Zoitia, or Zoetea or Zoitea (Ζοιτέα), also known as Zoeteium or Zoiteion (Ζοίτειον), was a town of ancient Arcadia, Greece, in the region of Eutresia. According to Greek mythology, the settlement was founded by Paroreus, the youngest son of Tricolonus, a relative of Lycaon. He also settled Paroria which was 10 stadia (1.8 km) from Zoetia. When Pausanias visited the city in the 2nd century, it was already abandoned. There remained a temple of Demeter and Artemis then.
Prasiae or Prasiai, or Prasia (Πρασία), also known as Brasiae or Brasiai (Βρασιαί), was a town on the eastern coast of ancient Laconia, described by Pausanias as the farthest of the Eleuthero-Laconian places on this part of the coast, and as distant 200 stadia by sea from Cyphanta. The Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax speaks of it as a city and a harbour. The name of the town was derived by the inhabitants from the noise of the waves (Βράζειν). Pausanias relates a story, found nowhere else in Greece, that Semele, after giving birth to her son by Zeus, was discovered by Cadmus and put with Dionysus into a chest, which was washed up by the waves at Prasiae. Semele, who was no longer alive when found, received a splendid funeral, but the Prasiaeans brought up Dionysus and changed the name of their town from Oreiatae or Oreiatai (Ὀρειάταί) to Brasiae. It was an important Spartan naval base during the Peloponnesian War. It was burnt by the Athenians in the second year of the Peloponnesian War, 430 BCE. Also in 414 BCE, the Athenians, in conjunction with the Argives, ravaged the coast near Prasiae. In the Macedonian period Prasiae, with other Laconian towns on this coast, passed into the hands of the Argives; whence Strabo calls it one of the Argive towns, though in another passage he says that it belonged at an earlier period to the Lacedaemonians. It was restored to Laconia by Augustus, who made it one of the Eleuthero-Laconian towns. Among the curiosities of Prasiae Pausanias mentions a cave where Ino nursed Dionysus; a temple of Asclepius and another of Achilles, and a small promontory upon which stood four brazen figures not more than a foot in height.
Paroreia or Paroria (Παρωρία) was a town of ancient Arcadia, Greece, in the region of Eutresia. It was located near the present village Trilofo, in the municipal unit of Megalopoli. According to Greek mythology, Paroreia was founded by Paroreus, a son of Tricolonus. It was 10 stades from Zoetia, and 15 stades from Thyraeum. It was already abandoned when Pausanias visited the area in the 2nd century.
Glyppia or Glympia was a village of ancient Laconia in Mount Parnon, situated near the frontiers of Argolis and Cynuria. Glyppia is the name in Pausanias, who simply describes it as situated in the interior above Marius. It appears to be the same place as the fortress called Glympeis (Γλυμπεῖς) by Polybius, who places it near the borders of the Argolis and Laconia, and who relates that the Messenians were defeated here in 218 BCE by the Spartans, when they were endeavouring, by a round-about march from Tegea, to penetrate into the southern valley of the Eurotas. It is also mentioned on another occasion by Polybius (4.36).
Genesium or Genesion or Genese (Γενέση) was a town of ancient Argolis upon the Argolic Gulf, south of Lerna, and north of the mountain pass, called Anigraea, leading into the Thyreatis. Pausanias also calls the place Genethlium or Genethlion (Γενέθλιον), and says less correctly that near it was the spring of fresh water rising in the sea, called Dine; whereas this spring of fresh water is to the south of the Anigraea.
Sumatia or Soumatia, or Sumetia or Soumetia (Σουμητία), also known as Sumateium or Soumateion (Σουμάτειον), or Sumeteia or Soumeteia (Σουμήτεια), was a town of ancient Arcadia in the district Maenalia, on the southern slope of Mount Maenalus. According to Greek mythology, Sumatia was founded by Sumateus, a son of Lycaon. Pausanias says that Sumatia was one of the towns in the territory of Maenalus, and was one of the towns that united to form Megalopolis.
Haemoniae or Haimoniai was a town in ancient Arcadia, in the district Maenalia.
Athenaeum or Athenaion, was a town in the south of ancient Arcadia, and in the territory of Megalopolis. Pausanias writes that it was on the road from Megalopolis to Asea, and 20 stadia from the latter.
Cromnus or Kromnos or Cromna or Kromna (Κρῶμνα), or Cromi or Kromoi (Κρῶμοι), was a town of ancient Arcadia on the frontiers of Messenia, the inhabitants of which were removed to Megalopolis, on the foundation of the latter city in 371 BCE. Its territory is called Cromitis or Kromitis (Κρωμῖτις) by Pausanias. Cromnus was the site of a battle where the Arcadians defeated the forces of Sparta under Archidamus III in 364 BCE.
Belemina, or Belmina (Βέλμινα), or Belbina (Βελβίνα), or Blenina (Βλένινα), was a town of ancient Laconia and ancient Arcadia, at the northwest frontier of the former, the territory of which was called Belminatis (Βελμινᾶτις). It was originally an Arcadian town, but was conquered by the Lacedaemonians at an early period, and annexed to their territory; although Pausanias does not believe this statement. After the Battle of Leuctra, Belemina was restored to Arcadia, reckoned to be part of Aegytis; most of its inhabitants were removed to the newly founded city of Megalopolis; and the place continued to be a dependency of the latter city. In the wars of the Achaean League, the Belminatis was a constant source of contention between the Spartans and Achaeans. Under Machanidas or Nabis, the tyrants of Sparta, the Belminatis was again annexed to Laconia; but upon the subjugation of Sparta by Philopoemen in 188 BCE, the Belminatis was once more annexed to the territory of Megalopolis. The Belminatis is a mountainous district, in which the Eurotas takes its rise from many springs. Belemina is said by Pausanias to have been 100 stadia from Pellana.
Macareae or Makareai, also known as Macaria or Makaria (Μακαρία), was a town of ancient Arcadia, in the district Parrhasia, 22 stadia from Megalopolis, on the road to Phigaleia, and 2 stadia from the Alpheius. It was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, as its inhabitants had been removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter (371 BCE). According to Greek mythology, it was founded by Macareus, a son of Lycaon.
Hypsus or Hypsous, also known as Hypsuntus or Hypsountos (Ὑψοῦντος), was a town of ancient Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, situated upon a mountain of the same name. According to Greek mythology, it was said to have been founded by Hypsus, a son of Lycaon.
Caryae or Karyai, also known as Carya or Karya (Καρύα), was a town in the north of ancient Arcadia in the region of Pheneatis near Pheneus. It should be distinguished from the town of the same name located in the boundary zone between Laconia and Arcadia. It is cited by Pausanias, who says that it was at the end of a ravine, on the road from Orchomenus to Pheneus and from there was the plain of Pheneus. Five stadia from Caryae were the mountains Oryxis (Ὄρυξις), and Sciathis (Σκίαθις).
Gortys, or Gortyna (Γόρτυνα), was a town of ancient Arcadia in the district Cynuria, situated near the river Gortynius (Γορτύνιος), also called Lusius (Λούσιος) nearer its sources, which was a tributary of the Alpheius, and was remarkable for the coldness of its waters. The town is said to have been founded by Gortys, a son of Stymphalus, and is described by Pausanias as a village in his time, though it had formerly been a considerable city. Most of its inhabitants were removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city in 371 BCE; but it must have continued to be a place of some importance, since Polybius says that it was taken by Euripidas, the general of the Eleians, in the Social War in 219 BCE. At that time it was subject to Thelpusa. It contained a celebrated temple of Asclepius, built of Pentelic marble, and containing statues of Asclepius and Hygieia by Scopas. Cicero alludes to this temple, when he says that near the river Lusius was the sepulchre of one of the Aesclepii, of whom he reckoned three.
Etis was a town in the south of ancient Laconia, the inhabitants of which were removed to Boeae.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.