# Ti-6Al-4V

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Ti-6Al-4V (UNS designation R56400), also sometimes called TC4, Ti64 [1] , or ASTM Grade 5, is an alpha-beta titanium alloy with a high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. It is one of the most commonly used titanium alloys and is applied in a wide range of applications where low density and excellent corrosion resistance are necessary such as e.g. aerospace industry and biomechanical applications (implants and prostheses).

## Contents

Studies of titanium alloys used in armors began in the 1950s at the Watertown Arsenal, which later became a part of the Army Research Laboratory. [2] [3]

## Chemistry

(in wt. %) [4]

V Al Fe O C N H Y Ti Remainder EachRemainder Total
Min3.55.5------------------
Max4.56.75.3.2.08.05.015.005Balance.1.3

## Physical and Mechanical Properties

Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy commonly exists in alpha, with hcp crystal structure, (SG : P63/mmc) and beta, with bcc crystal structure, (SG : Im-3m) phases. While mechanical properties are a function of the heat treatment condition of the alloy and can vary based upon properties, typical property ranges for well-processed Ti-6Al-4V are shown below. [5] [6] [7] Aluminum stabilizes the alpha phase, while vanadium stabilizes the beta phase. [8] [9]

Density, g/cm3Young's Modulus, GPaShear Modulus, GPaBulk Modulus,GPaPoisson's RatioYield Stress, MPa (Tensile)Ultimate Stress, MPa (Tensile)Hardness, Rockwell CUniform Elongation, %
Min4.4291044096.80.3188090036 (Typical)5
Max4.512113451530.37920950--18

Ti-6Al-4V has a very low thermal conductivity at room temperature, 6.7 - 7.5 W/m·K [10] [11] , which contributes to its relatively poor machinability. [11]

The alloy is vulnerable to cold dwell. [12]

## Heat Treatment of Ti-6Al-4V

Ti-6Al-4V is heat treated to vary the amounts of and microstructure of ${\displaystyle \alpha }$ and ${\displaystyle \beta }$ phases in the alloy. The microstructure will vary significantly depending on the exact heat treatment and method of processing. Three common heat treatment processes are mill annealing, duplex annealing, and solution treating and aging [13] .

## Applications

• Implants and prostheses (wrought, cast or by Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF)) [14]
• Parts and prototypes for racing and aerospace industry. Used extensively within the Boeing 787 aircraft.
• Marine applications
• Chemical industry
• Gas turbines

## Specifications

• UNS: R56400
• AMS Standard: 4911
• ASTM Standard: F1472
• ASTM Standard: B265 Grade 5 [16]

## Related Research Articles

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Ti-6Al-7Nb is an alpha-beta titanium alloy first synthesized in 1977 containing 6% aluminum and 7% niobium. It features high strength and has similar properties as the cytotoxic vanadium containing alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Ti-6Al-7Nb is used as a material for hip protheses. Ti―6Al―7Nb is one of the titanium alloys that built of hexagonal α phase and regular body-centred phase β. The alloy is characterized by added advantageous mechanical properties, it has higher corrosion resistance and biotolerance in relation to Ti-6Al-4V alloys.

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