Ti-6Al-4V (UNS designation R56400), also sometimes called TC4, Ti64, or ASTM Grade 5, is an alpha-beta titanium alloy with a high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. It is one of the most commonly used titanium alloys and is applied in a wide range of applications where low density and excellent corrosion resistance are necessary such as e.g. aerospace industry and biomechanical applications (implants and prostheses).
Studies of titanium alloys used in armors began in the 1950s at the Watertown Arsenal, which later became a part of the Army Research Laboratory.
(in wt. %)
|V||Al||Fe||O||C||N||H||Y||Ti||Remainder Each||Remainder Total|
Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy commonly exists in alpha, with hcp crystal structure, (SG : P63/mmc) and beta, with bcc crystal structure, (SG : Im-3m) phases. While mechanical properties are a function of the heat treatment condition of the alloy and can vary based upon properties, typical property ranges for well-processed Ti-6Al-4V are shown below. Aluminum stabilizes the alpha phase, while vanadium stabilizes the beta phase.
|Density, g/cm3||Young's Modulus, GPa||Shear Modulus, GPa||Bulk Modulus,GPa||Poisson's Ratio||Yield Stress, MPa (Tensile)||Ultimate Stress, MPa (Tensile)||Hardness, Rockwell C||Uniform Elongation, %|
Ti-6Al-4V has a very low thermal conductivity at room temperature, 6.7 - 7.5 W/m·K, which contributes to its relatively poor machinability.
The alloy is vulnerable to cold dwell.
Ti-6Al-4V is heat treated to vary the amounts of and microstructure of and phases in the alloy. The microstructure will vary significantly depending on the exact heat treatment and method of processing. Three common heat treatment processes are mill annealing, duplex annealing, and solution treating and aging .
Stainless steel is a group of iron-based alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium, a composition that prevents the iron from rusting, as well as providing heat-resistant properties. Different types of stainless steel include the elements carbon, nitrogen, aluminium, silicon, sulfur, titanium, nickel, copper, selenium, niobium, and molybdenum. Specific types of stainless steel are often designated by a three-digit number, e.g., 304 stainless.
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.
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A cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and metal (met) materials.
In modern Western body piercing, a wide variety of materials are used. Some cannot be autoclaved, and others may induce allergic reactions, or harbour bacteria. Certain countries, such as those belonging to the EU, have legal regulations specifying which materials can be used in new piercings.
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An archwire in orthodontics is a wire conforming to the alveolar or dental arch that can be used with dental braces as a source of force in correcting irregularities in the position of the teeth. An archwire can also be used to maintain existing dental positions; in this case it has a retentive purpose.
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Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, also known as Ti 6-2-4-2, is a near alpha titanium alloy known for its high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. It is often used in the aerospace industry for creating high-temperature jet engines and the automotive industry to create high performance automotive valves.
Inconel Alloy 625 is a nickel-based superalloy that possesses high strength properties and resistance to elevated temperatures. It also demonstrates remarkable protection against corrosion and oxidation. Its ability to withstand high stress and a wide range of temperatures, both in and out of water, as well as being able to resist corrosion while being exposed to highly acidic environments makes it a fitting choice for nuclear and marine applications.
Ti-6Al-7Nb is an alpha-beta titanium alloy first synthesized in 1977 containing 6% aluminum and 7% niobium. It features high strength and has similar properties as the cytotoxic vanadium containing alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Ti-6Al-7Nb is used as a material for hip protheses. Ti―6Al―7Nb is one of the titanium alloys that built of hexagonal α phase and regular body-centred phase β. The alloy is characterized by added advantageous mechanical properties, it has higher corrosion resistance and biotolerance in relation to Ti-6Al-4V alloys.