|Inspector of Qing Province (青州刺史)|
(appointed by Gongsun Zan)
|Monarch||Emperor Xian of Han|
Tian Kai (died 199) was an official serving under the warlord Gongsun Zan during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Gongsun Zan, courtesy name Bogui, was a military general and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Little is recorded about Tian Kai in history. He probably started his career as a subordinate of the warlord Gongsun Zan in the Eastern Han dynasty. In the second half of 191, when war broke out between Gongsun Zan and his rival Yuan Shao, Gongsun Zan sent Tian Kai to seize control of Qing Province, which was then under Yuan Shao's control. Tian Kai was appointed as the Inspector of Qing Province in 192.However, Tian Kai only managed to gain control over the northern part of Qing Province, while the southern part remained under the control of Yuan Tan, Yuan Shao's eldest son. The next year he was driven out of Qing. In 193, Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao agreed to a truce after two years of battles against each other.
Yuan Shao, courtesy name Benchu, was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He occupied the northern territories of China during the civil wars that occurred towards the end of the Han dynasty. He was also an elder half-brother of Yuan Shu, a warlord who controlled the Huai River region, though the two were not on good terms with each other.
Qingzhou or Qing Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China dating back to c. 2070 BCE that later became one of the thirteen provinces of the Han dynasty. The Nine Provinces were first described in the Tribute of Yu chapter of the classic Book of Documents, with Qingzhou lying to the east of Yuzhou and north of Yangzhou. Qingzhou's primary territory included most of modern Shandong province except the southwest corner.
Yuan Tan, courtesy name Xiansi, was the eldest son of Yuan Shao, a warlord who occupied much of northern China during the late Eastern Han dynasty. After Yuan Shao's death, Yuan Tan engaged his younger brother, Yuan Shang, in a power struggle over their father's territories. He sought help from his father's rival, Cao Cao, and defeated Yuan Shang with Cao's help. However, the alliance between Yuan Tan and Cao Cao was eventually broken and Yuan was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nanpi by Cao Cao's troops.
In 194, Xu Province came under attack by the warlord Cao Cao. Tao Qian, the Governor of Xu Province, approached his neighbours for help, one of whom was Tian Kai. Tian Kai and Liu Bei, then the Chancellor of Pingyuan Commandery, led their troops to Xu Province to assist Tao Qian and force Cao Cao to retreat.
Cao Cao's invasion of Xu Province was a punitive invasion launched by the warlord Cao Cao against Tao Qian, the Governor of Xu Province, in the late Eastern Han dynasty. The casus belli for the invasion was the murder of Cao Cao's father, Cao Song, in Xu Province. Although Tao Qian's culpability was questionable, Cao Cao nonetheless held him responsible. The invasion took place in two separate waves in 193 and 194, during each of which Cao Cao captured a number of towns and engaged in collective punishment of the civilian populace.
Tao Qian (132-194), courtesy name Gongzu, was a government official and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is best known for serving as the Governor of Xu Province.
Liu Bei, courtesy name Xuande, was a warlord in the late Eastern Han dynasty who founded the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period and became its first ruler. Despite early failings compared to his rivals and lacking both the material resources and social status they commanded, he gathered support among disheartened Han loyalists who opposed Cao Cao, the warlord who controlled the Han central government and the figurehead Emperor Xian, and led a popular movement to restore the Han dynasty through this support. Liu Bei overcame his many defeats to carve out his own realm, which at its peak spanned present-day Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunan, and parts of Hubei and Gansu.
In 198, war broke out between Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao again. Tian Kai fought on Gongsun Zan's side in the Battle of Yijing and was killed in action.
The Battle of Yijing was a military conflict which took place in northern China from 198 to 199 in the late Eastern Han dynasty. It was fought between Gongsun Zan, a warlord known as the "White Horse General", and Yuan Shao, a scion of the esteemed Yuan clan and former leader of the coalition against Dong Zhuo.
Yuan Shu, courtesy name Gonglu, was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He rose to prominence following the collapse of the Han central government in 189.
The military history of the Three Kingdoms period encompasses roughly a century's worth of prolonged warfare and disorder. After the assassination of General-in-chief He Jin in September 189, the administrative structures of the Han government became increasingly irrelevant. By the death of Cao Cao, the most successful warlord of North China, in 220, the Han empire was divided between the three rival states of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu. Due to the ensuing turmoil, the competing powers of the Three Kingdoms era found no shortage of willing recruits for their armies, although press-ganging as well as forcible enlistment of prisoners from defeated armies still occurred. Following four centuries of rule under the Han dynasty, the Three Kingdoms brought about a new era of conflict in China that shifted institutions in favor of a more permanent and selective system of military recruitment. This ultimately included the creation of a hereditary military class as well as increasing reliance on non-Chinese cavalry forces and the end of universal conscription.
Tian Feng, courtesy name Yuanhao, was an official and adviser serving under the warlord Yuan Shao during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Yuan Xi, courtesy name Xianyi or Xianyong, was the second son of Yuan Shao, a warlord who controlled much of northern China during the late Eastern Han dynasty.
Han Fu, courtesy name Wenjie, was a government official and minor warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He was the governor of Ji Province when the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in 184.
Bao Xin (152–192) was a military general and minor warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Liu Dai, courtesy name Gongshan, was an official who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Zhang Yan, born Chu Yan, also known as Zhang Feiyan, was the leader of the Heishan bandits during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Yuan Shang, courtesy name Xianfu, was a warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He was the third son and successor of the warlord Yuan Shao. In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Yuan Shang was described as "strong but arrogant", and he was his father's favourite son.
Xun Chen, courtesy name Youruo, was an official who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Born in the influential Xun family of Yingchuan Commandery, he was the fourth brother of Xun Yu and a second cousins once removed of Xun You. He initially served as an adviser to the warlord Han Fu and later to another warlord, Yuan Shao.
Yan Rou was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He previously served under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty.
The Heishan bandits or Black Mountain bandits was a bandit confederacy in the Taihang Mountain range during the later years of the Eastern Han dynasty in China. They played a part in the internecine feuds that followed the Eastern Han dynasty's descent into chaos preceding the Three Kingdoms period, during which they eventually surrendered to the warlord Cao Cao.
The Battle of Dushi Ford was a battle fought between the warlords Cao Cao and Yuan Shao between February 3 and March 2, 200 in the late Eastern Han dynasty. In the battle, Yuan Shao launched an attack on Cao Cao's position on the southern bank of the Yellow River, taking advantage of Cao's temporary absence. In response, Cao Cao's general Yu Jin raided Yuan Shao's encampments in the vicinity of present-day Henan, ultimately discouraging Yuan from making a determined attack.
The Battle of White Wolf Mountain was a battle fought in 207 in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. The battle took place in northern China, beyond the frontiers of the ruling Eastern Han dynasty. It was fought between the warlord Cao Cao and the nomadic Wuhuan tribes, who were allied with Cao Cao's rivals Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi. The victory attained by Cao Cao dashed the hopes of a Wuhuan dominion, and the Wuhuan eventually became weakened, lost importance, and were gradually absorbed into China or the Xianbei tribes.
Chen Shou (233–297), courtesy name Chengzuo, was a historian, politician, and writer who lived during the Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China. He started his career as an official in the state of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era but was demoted and sent out of the capital for his refusal to fawn on Huang Hao, an influential court eunuch in Shu in its twilight years. After the fall of Shu in 263, Chen Shou's career entered a period of stagnation before Zhang Hua recommended him to serve in the Jin government. He held mainly scribal and secretarial positions under the Jin government before dying from illness in 297. He had over 200 writings – about 30 of which he co-wrote with his relatives – attributed to him.
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. The primary body of the text was written by Chen Shou in the third century and combines the smaller histories of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu into a single text.
Richard Rafe Champion de Crespigny, also known as Zhang Leifu, is an Australian sinologist and historian, currently an adjunct professor in the College of Asia and the Pacific at the Australian National University. He specialises in the history, geography, and literature of the Han dynasty, particularly the translation and historiography of material concerning the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period.