Tian Kai

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Tian Kai
田楷
Inspector of Qing Province (青州刺史)
(appointed by Gongsun Zan)
In office
192 (192) 199 (199)
Monarch Emperor Xian of Han
Personal details
BornUnknown
Died199
OccupationOfficial

Tian Kai (died 199) was an official serving under the warlord Gongsun Zan during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

Gongsun Zan historical Chinese warlord

Gongsun Zan, courtesy name Bogui, was a military general and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

Contents

Life

Warlords in China around 194 Warlords in 194.jpg
Warlords in China around 194

Little is recorded about Tian Kai in history. He probably started his career as a subordinate of the warlord Gongsun Zan in the Eastern Han dynasty. In the second half of 191, when war broke out between Gongsun Zan and his rival Yuan Shao, Gongsun Zan sent Tian Kai to seize control of Qing Province, which was then under Yuan Shao's control. Tian Kai was appointed as the Inspector of Qing Province in 192. [1] However, Tian Kai only managed to gain control over the northern part of Qing Province, while the southern part remained under the control of Yuan Tan, Yuan Shao's eldest son. The next year he was driven out of Qing. [1] In 193, Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao agreed to a truce after two years of battles against each other.

Yuan Shao Han Dynasty warlord

Yuan Shao, courtesy name Benchu, was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He occupied the northern territories of China during the civil wars that occurred towards the end of the Han dynasty. He was also an elder half-brother of Yuan Shu, a warlord who controlled the Huai River region, though the two were not on good terms with each other.

Qing Province Qīngzhōu (Chinese: 青州) was traditionally one of the Nine Provinces of Ancient China dating back to c. 2070 BCE that later became one of the thirteen provinces of the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)

Qingzhou or Qing Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China dating back to c. 2070 BCE that later became one of the thirteen provinces of the Han dynasty. The Nine Provinces were first described in the Tribute of Yu chapter of the classic Book of Documents, with Qingzhou lying to the east of Yuzhou and north of Yangzhou. Qingzhou's primary territory included most of modern Shandong province except the southwest corner.

Yuan Tan, courtesy name Xiansi, was the eldest son of Yuan Shao, a warlord who occupied much of northern China during the late Eastern Han dynasty. After Yuan Shao's death, Yuan Tan engaged his younger brother, Yuan Shang, in a power struggle over their father's territories. He sought help from his father's rival, Cao Cao, and defeated Yuan Shang with Cao's help. However, the alliance between Yuan Tan and Cao Cao was eventually broken and Yuan was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nanpi by Cao Cao's troops.

In 194, Xu Province came under attack by the warlord Cao Cao. Tao Qian, the Governor of Xu Province, approached his neighbours for help, one of whom was Tian Kai. Tian Kai and Liu Bei, then the Chancellor of Pingyuan Commandery, led their troops to Xu Province to assist Tao Qian and force Cao Cao to retreat.

Cao Caos invasion of Xu Province punitive invasion launched by the warlord Cao Cao against Tao Qian

Cao Cao's invasion of Xu Province was a punitive invasion launched by the warlord Cao Cao against Tao Qian, the Governor of Xu Province, in the late Eastern Han dynasty. The casus belli for the invasion was the murder of Cao Cao's father, Cao Song, in Xu Province. Although Tao Qian's culpability was questionable, Cao Cao nonetheless held him responsible. The invasion took place in two separate waves in 193 and 194, during each of which Cao Cao captured a number of towns and engaged in collective punishment of the civilian populace.

Tao Qian (Han dynasty) Han Dynasty warlord

Tao Qian (132-194), courtesy name Gongzu, was a government official and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is best known for serving as the Governor of Xu Province.

Liu Bei Shu Han emperor

Liu Bei, courtesy name Xuande, was a warlord in the late Eastern Han dynasty who founded the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period and became its first ruler. Despite early failings compared to his rivals and lacking both the material resources and social status they commanded, he gathered support among disheartened Han loyalists who opposed Cao Cao, the warlord who controlled the Han central government and the figurehead Emperor Xian, and led a popular movement to restore the Han dynasty through this support. Liu Bei overcame his many defeats to carve out his own realm, which at its peak spanned present-day Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunan, and parts of Hubei and Gansu.

In 198, war broke out between Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao again. Tian Kai fought on Gongsun Zan's side in the Battle of Yijing and was killed in action.

The Battle of Yijing was a military conflict which took place in northern China from 198 to 199 in the late Eastern Han dynasty. It was fought between Gongsun Zan, a warlord known as the "White Horse General", and Yuan Shao, a scion of the esteemed Yuan clan and former leader of the coalition against Dong Zhuo.

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References

  1. 1 2 de Crespigny, Rafe (2007), p. 272.

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Richard Rafe Champion de Crespigny, also known as Zhang Leifu, is an Australian sinologist and historian, currently an adjunct professor in the College of Asia and the Pacific at the Australian National University. He specialises in the history, geography, and literature of the Han dynasty, particularly the translation and historiography of material concerning the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period.