Tibetan (Unicode block)

Last updated
Tibetan
RangeU+0F00..U+0FFF
(256 code points)
Plane BMP
Scripts Tibetan (207 char.)
Common (4 char.)
Major alphabetsTibetan
Dzongkha
Assigned211 code points
Unused45 reserved code points
2 deprecated
Unicode version history
2.0 (1996)168 (+168)
3.0 (1999)193 (+25)
4.1 (2005)195 (+2)
5.1 (2008)201 (+6)
5.2 (2009)205 (+4)
6.0 (2010)211 (+6)
Note: [1] [2]
When unifying with ISO 10646, the original Tibetan block was removed in Unicode 1.0.1. [3] The current block (with a new encoding model and a different range) was introduced in version 2.0.

Tibetan is a Unicode block containing characters for the Tibetan, Dzongkha, and other languages of China, Bhutan, Nepal, Mongolia, northern India, eastern Pakistan and Russia.

Contents

Block

Tibetan [1] [2] [3]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+0F0x
 NB 
U+0F1x
U+0F2x
U+0F3x༿
U+0F4x
U+0F5x
U+0F6x
U+0F7xཿ
U+0F8x
U+0F9x
U+0FAx
U+0FBx྿
U+0FCx
U+0FDx
U+0FEx
U+0FFx
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
3. ^ Unicode code points U+0F77 and U+0F79 are deprecated in Unicode 5.2 and later

Former Tibetan block

Tibetan (Unicode 1.0.0)
RangeU+1000..U+104F
(80 code points)
Plane BMP
Scripts Tibetan
Major alphabetsTibetan
Dzongkha
Status Deleted prior to the release of Unicode 2.0
Now occupied by Myanmar
Unicode version history
1.0.0 (1991)71 (+71)
1.0.1 (1992)0 (-71)
Note: When unifying with ISO 10646, the original Tibetan block was deleted in Unicode 1.0.1. [3] Tibetan was later reintroduced with a new encoding model for Unicode 2.0.

The Tibetan Unicode block is unique for having been allocated in version 1.0.0 with a virama-based encoding that was unable to distinguish visible srog med and conjunct consonant correctly. [note 1] This encoding was removed from the Unicode Standard in version 1.0.1 in the process of unifying with ISO 10646 for version 1.1, [3] then reintroduced as an explicit root/subjoined encoding, with a larger block size, in version 2.0. Moving or removing existing characters has been prohibited by the Unicode Stability Policy for all versions following Unicode 2.0, so the Tibetan characters encoded in Unicode 2.0 and all subsequent versions are immutable.

The range of the former Unicode 1.0.0 Tibetan block has been occupied by the Myanmar block since Unicode 3.0. In Microsoft Windows, collation data referring to the old Tibetan block was retained as late as Windows XP, and removed in Windows 2003. [4]

Tibetan (Unicode 1.0.0) [1] [2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+100x
U+101x
U+102xཿ
U+103x
U+104x
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 1.0.0. Characters are shown by means of corresponding code points in Unicode 2.0 and all subsequent versions.
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

History

The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Tibetan block:

Footnotes

  1. In most Unicode Indic encodings, although one can force the system to display a visible halanta by using the zero-width non-joiner (ZWNJ) or force the use of a non‑conjunct joining form using the zero-width joiner (ZWJ), there is no method to force a conjunct consonant rendering, which is crucial when writing Tibetan. Some exceptions exist: for instance, Sinhala uses ZWJ to force a conjunct.

Related Research Articles

Unicode Character encoding standard

Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard, which is maintained by the Unicode Consortium, defines 144,697 characters covering 159 modern and historic scripts, as well as symbols, emoji, and non-visual control and formatting codes.

Sinhala script Abugida writing system used for the Sinhala language

Sinhala script, also known as Sinhalese script, is a writing system used by the Sinhalese people and most Sri Lankans in Sri Lanka and elsewhere to write the Sinhala language, as well as the liturgical languages, Pali and Sanskrit. The Sinhalese Akṣara Mālāva, one of the Brahmic scripts, is a descendant of the Ancient Indian Brahmi script.

Malayalam script

Malayalam script is a Brahmic script used commonly to write Malayalam, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 45 million people in the world. It is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people. It is one of 22 scheduled languages of India Malayalam script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Kerala.

UTF-32 (32-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a fixed-length encoding used to encode Unicode code points that uses exactly 32 bits (four bytes) per code point (but a number of leading bits must be zero as there are far fewer than 232 Unicode code points, needing actually only 21 bits). UTF-32 is a fixed-length encoding, in contrast to all other Unicode transformation formats, which are variable-length encodings. Each 32-bit value in UTF-32 represents one Unicode code point and is exactly equal to that code point's numerical value.

Tibetan script writing system used to write certain Tibetic languages

The Tibetan script is a segmental writing system (abugida) of Indic origin used to write certain Tibetic languages, including Tibetan, Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, Jirel and Balti. It has also been used for some non-Tibetic languages in close cultural contact with Tibet, such as Thakali. The printed form is called uchen script while the hand-written cursive form used in everyday writing is called umê script. This writing system is used across the Himalayas, and Tibet.

Telugu script, an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states. The Telugu script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts and to some extent the Gondi language. It gained prominence during the Eastern Chalukyas also known as Vengi Chalukya era. It shares extensive similarities with the Kannada script, as it has evolved from Kadamba and Bhattiprolu scripts of the Brahmi family. In 2008, Telugu language was given the status of Classical Languages of India, this status owes to its rich history and heritage.

Indian Script Code for Information Interchange (ISCII) is a coding scheme for representing various writing systems of India. It encodes the main Indic scripts and a Roman transliteration. The supported scripts are: Assamese, Bengali (Bangla), Devanagari, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Tamil, and Telugu. ISCII does not encode the writing systems of India that are based on Persian, but its writing system switching codes nonetheless provide for Kashmiri, Sindhi, Urdu, Persian, Pashto and Arabic. The Persian-based writing systems were subsequently encoded in the PASCII encoding.

Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text, supporting complex text layout. It is implemented in the dynamic link library USP10.DLL. Uniscribe has been released with Windows 2000 and Internet Explorer 5.0. In addition, the Windows CE platform has supported Uniscribe since version 5.0.

Virama is a Sanskrit phonological concept to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter, commonly used as a generic term for a codepoint in Unicode, representing either

  1. halanta or explicit virama, a diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, including the Devanagari and Eastern Nagari scripts, or
  2. saṃyuktākṣara or implicit virama, a conjunct consonant or ligature.
Zero-width joiner Non-printing character used in computerized typesetting

The zero-width joiner is a non-printing character used in the computerized typesetting of some complex scripts such as the Arabic script or any Indic script. Sometimes the Roman script is to be counted as complex, e.g. when using a Fraktur typeface. When placed between two characters that would otherwise not be connected, a ZWJ causes them to be printed in their connected forms.

Lepcha script

The Lepcha script, or Róng script, is an abugida used by the Lepcha people to write the Lepcha language. Unusually for an abugida, syllable-final consonants are written as diacritics.

Universal Character Set characters Complete list of the characters available on most computers

The Unicode Consortium (UC) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) collaborate on the Universal Character Set (UCS). The UCS is an international standard to map characters used in natural language, mathematics, music, and other domains to machine-readable values. By creating this mapping, the UCS enables computer software vendors to interoperate and transmit UCS-encoded text strings from one to another. Because it is a universal map, it can be used to represent multiple languages at the same time. This avoids the confusion of using multiple legacy character encodings, which can result in the same sequence of codes having multiple meanings and thus be improperly decoded if the wrong one is chosen.

Chakma script

The Chakma Script, also called Ajhā pāṭh, Ojhapath, Ojhopath, Aaojhapath, is an abugida used for the Chakma language, and recently for the Pali language.

The zero-width space (), abbreviated ZWSP, is a non-printing character used in computerized typesetting to indicate word boundaries to text processing systems when using scripts that do not use explicit spacing, or after characters that are not followed by a visible space but after which there may nevertheless be a line break. It is also used with languages without visible space between words, for example Japanese. Normally, it is not a visible separation, but it may expand in passages that are fully justified.

The Unicode Standard assigns various properties to each Unicode character and code point.

Myanmar is a Unicode block containing characters for the Burmese, Mon, Shan, Palaung, and the Karen languages of Myanmar, as well as the Aiton and Phake languages of Northeast India. It is also used to write Pali and Sanskrit in Myanmar.

Mongolian is a Unicode block containing characters for dialects of Mongolian, Manchu, and Sibe languages. It is traditionally written in vertical lines Top-Down, right across the page, although the Unicode code charts cite the characters rotated to horizontal orientation as this is the orientation of glyphs in a font that supports layout in vertical orientation.

General Punctuation is a Unicode block containing punctuation, spacing, and formatting characters for use with all scripts and writing systems. Included are the defined-width spaces, joining formats, directional formats, smart quotes, archaic and novel punctuation such as the interrobang, and invisible mathematical operators.

Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms is the name of a Unicode block U+FF00–FFEF, provided so that older encodings containing both halfwidth and fullwidth characters can have lossless translation to/from Unicode. It is the last of the Basic Multilingual Plane excepting the short Specials block at U+FFF0–FFFF. Its block name in Unicode 1.0 was Halfwidth and Fullwidth Variants.

The Mon script is a Brahmic abugida used for writing Mon language which was derived from the Burmese script.

References

  1. "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  2. "Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  3. 1 2 3 "Unicode 1.0.1 Addendum" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. 1992-11-03. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  4. Kaplan, Michael (2007-08-28). "Every character has a story #29: U+1000^H^H^H^H0f40, (TIBETAN or MYANMAR LETTER KA, depending on when you ask)". Sorting it all out.