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Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool, causing fusion. Welding is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
Arc welding is a welding process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals. It is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between a metal stick ("electrode") and the base material to melt the metals at the point of contact. Arc welders can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes.
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area and electrode is protected from oxidation or other atmospheric contamination by an inert shielding gas, and a filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not require it. When helium is used, this is known as heliarc welding. A constant-current welding power supply produces electrical energy, which is conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as a plasma.
Plasma arc welding (PAW) is an arc welding process similar to gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). The electric arc is formed between an electrode and the workpiece. The key difference from GTAW is that in PAW, the electrode is positioned within the body of the torch, so the plasma arc is separated from the shielding gas envelope. The plasma is then forced through a fine-bore copper nozzle which constricts the arc and the plasma exits the orifice at high velocities and a temperature approaching 28,000 °C (50,000 °F) or higher.
A welding power supply is a device that provides or modulates an electric current to perform arc welding. There are multiple arc welding processes in common use ranging from relatively simple Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) to more complicated welding processes using inert shielding gas like Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) or Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Welding power supplies primarily serve as devices that allow a welder to exercise control over whether current is alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC), as well as the amperage and voltage. Power supplies for welding processes that use shielding gas also offer connections for gas and methods to control gas flow. The operator can set these factors to within the parameters as needed by the metal type, thickness, and technique to be used. The majority of welding power supplies do not generate power, instead functioning as controllable transformers that allow the operator to adjust electrical properties as needed. However, in some welding applications, notably SMAW, used in areas isolated from power grids, welding power supplies are used that combine the functions of electrical generation and current modulation into a single mobile unit mounted on a vehicle or towed trailer.
A filler metal is a metal added in the making of a joint through welding, brazing, or soldering.
Atomic hydrogen welding (AHW) is an arc welding process that uses an arc between two tungsten electrodes in a shielding atmosphere of hydrogen. The process was invented by Irving Langmuir in the course of his studies of atomic hydrogen. The electric arc efficiently breaks up the hydrogen molecules, which later recombine with tremendous release of heat, reaching temperatures from 3400 to 4000 °C. Without the arc, an oxyhydrogen torch can only reach 2800 °C. This is the third-hottest flame after dicyanoacetylene at 4987 °C and cyanogen at 4525 °C. An acetylene torch merely reaches 3300 °C. This device may be called an atomic hydrogen torch, nascent hydrogen torch or Langmuir torch. The process was also known as arc-atom welding.
Carbon arc welding (CAW) is a process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a non-consumable carbon (graphite) electrode and the work-piece. It was the first arc-welding process developed but is not used for many applications today, having been replaced by twin-carbon-arc welding and other variations. The purpose of arc welding is to form a bond between separate metals. In carbon-arc welding a carbon electrode is used to produce an electric arc between the electrode and the materials being bonded. This arc produces temperatures in excess of 3,000 °C. At this temperature the separate metals form a bond and become welded together.
A welding helmet is a type of headgear used when performing certain types of welding to protect the eyes, face and neck from flash burn, ultraviolet light, sparks, infrared light, and heat.
Hyperbaric welding is the process of welding at elevated pressures, normally underwater. Hyperbaric welding can either take place wet in the water itself or dry inside a specially constructed positive pressure enclosure and hence a dry environment. It is predominantly referred to as "hyperbaric welding" when used in a dry environment, and "underwater welding" when in a wet environment. The applications of hyperbaric welding are diverse—it is often used to repair ships, offshore oil platforms, and pipelines. Steel is the most common material welded.
Hardfacing is a metalworking process where harder or tougher material is applied to a base metal. It is welded to the base material, and generally takes the form of specialized electrodes for arc welding or filler rod for oxyacetylene and gas tungsten arc welding (TIG) welding. Powder metal alloys are used in (PTA) also called powder plasma welding and thermal spray processes like high-velocity oxygen fuel coating (HVOF), plasma spray, spray and fuse, etc.SAW, FCAW and MIG / MAG uses continuously fed wire varying in diameter depending on process and current Strip cladding process uses strips from 50 mm wide to 125 mm with a thickness of 0.5mm. Open arc welding uses continuously fed tubular electrode which may or may not contain flux.
Orbital welding is a specialized area of welding whereby the arc is rotated mechanically through 360° around a static workpiece, an object such as a pipe, in a continuous process. The process was developed to address the issue of operator error in gas tungsten arc welding processes (GTAW), to support uniform welding around a pipe that would be significantly more difficult using a manual welding process, and to ensure high quality repeatable welds that would meet more stringent weld criteria set by ASME. In orbital welding, computer-controlled process runs with little intervention from the operator.
Mathilde "Tig" O'Callaghan Notaro is an American stand-up comic, writer, radio contributor, and actress. She is known for her deadpan comedy. Her acclaimed album Live was nominated in 2014 for the Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards. The special Tig Notaro: Boyish Girl Interrupted was nominated in 2016 at the 68th Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Writing for a Variety Special. In 2017, the album Boyish Girl Interrupted was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album at the 59th Annual Grammy Awards.
The Bentzen Ball is a comedy festival held in Washington, D.C., first in 2009, and then in 2013. It is produced by the D.C.-based online magazine and event company Brightest Young Things and curated by Tig Notaro.
Gas blending is the process of mixing gases for a specific purpose where the composition of the resulting mixture is specified and controlled. A wide range of applications include scientific and industrial processes, food production and storage and breathing gases.
Tig is a 2015 documentary film directed by Kristina Goolsby and Ashley York with additional directing and writing by Jennifer Arnold and starring Tig Notaro. The film chronicles Notaro's trials dealing with being diagnosed with breast cancer and her attempts to become pregnant with her fiancée Stephanie Allynne.
TIP TIG is a subset of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), using a mechanism called filler wire agitation to enhance molten weld puddle dynamics. This agitation has been found to enhance the weld puddle fluidity and release evolving gases, reducing the chances of inclusions and porosity, and also separate impurities.
Tig Notaro: Boyish Girl Interrupted is the first hour-long comedy special from Tig Notaro that premiered on HBO on August 22, 2015. The special was recorded on May 31, 2015 at the Wilbur Theatre in Boston. In 2016, Tig’s record label Bentzen Ball Records and Secretly Canadian released an audio album version of the special on CD, download and vinyl. The album is dedicated to the memory of Susie Cusack, Tig’s mother.
Knock Knock, It's Tig Notaro is a 2015 stand-up comedy tour documentary film starring Tig Notaro and Jon Dore. The film premiered on March 16, 2015 at the South by Southwest Film Festival and aired on Showtime on April 17, 2015.