TigerSwan is an international security and global stability firm founded in 2008 by retired U.S. Army lieutenant colonel and Delta Force operator James Reese.
TigerSwan is a Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business based in Apex, North Carolina.The company operates globally. Founder James Reese served in the elite Delta Force unit. He started his career as an ROTC cadet and served in the United States Army for 25 years. Reese was an adviser, commander, and operations officer during the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.
The company has over 300 employees and conducts operations in over 50 countries.
The TigerSwan firearms training center was located near Cedar Creek in Cumberland County, North Carolina. Since it opened in 2010, the range has offered firearms and tactical training to military, law enforcement, and the public. In 2014, Reese sold the training company, and the shooting range changed its name to the Range Complex.
The firm provided security for the Iraqi Mine-Unexploded Ordnance Clearing Organization, a U.S. State Department funded NGO tasked with clearing munitions and mines in Iraq.
During the 2014 Sochi Olympics, TigerSwan provided security for members of Olympic committees, corporate sponsors, and sports fans traveling to Sochi. They said they could pinpoint a client's location within a 3 foot radius using a GPS device provided to their clients.
TigerSwan was hired by Dakota Access, LLC to provide security consulting during the Dakota Access Pipeline protests.Internal company documents, which were leaked to The Intercept , reportedly compared the movement opposed to the pipeline with jihadis, calling them "an ideologically driven insurgency with a strong religious component." The Intercept called the DAPL operation a "multi-faceted private security operation characterized by sweeping and invasive surveillance of protesters," and reported that the leaked situation and disinformation reports prepared by the company during the protest provide evidence of aerial surveillance, as well as radio eavesdropping. Further revelations emerged from The Intercept leak including: TigerSwan had protesters followed, TigerSwan targeted protesters of Middle-Eastern descent, TigerSwan placed infiltrators at the camps and TigerSwan posted fake social media posts opposing the pipeline.
Lower Brulé Sioux Historian Nick Estes has argued that TigerSwan took part in anti-black racism during situation report briefings with local law enforcement carried out through aerial photography of Water Protector camps at Standing Rock: "In one situation report, an image of a gorilla is superimposed atop the camp. This was Harambe, the gorilla killed at the Cincinnati Zoo when a Black child fell into his cage. On one hand, white supremacists have used the killing of Harambe to mock Black people online, charging that the gorilla had to be killed because Black parents are careless. On the other, the comparison of Black people to monkeys and gorillas is a well-established racist trope. Now, TigerSwan was evoking this anti-Black history to racialize, mock, and degrade Water Protectors with tropes of primitivism. To DAPL and law enforcement, the camps were a place of death, a place to be destroyed, a place that threatened to expose the illegitimacy of settlement."
TigerSwan is currently being sued by North Dakota’s Private Investigative and Security Board for operating without a license in the state in 2016 and 2017, during which time TigerSwan was working for Dakota Access, LLC.TigerSwan denies the charges.
In 2013, TigerSwan filed a lawsuit against the United States in Federal Court alleging breach of contract due to improper termination. The dispute was over two contracts that were awarded by the Department of Defense for Iraq-based security services. The DoD initially awarded the contracts to TigerSwan, but then terminated the contracts and awarded them instead to the British private military company Aegis Defence Services.The Court denied the government's request to dismiss the case, finding that a contractor does not always need to show specific intent in order to prevail on a claim that alleges bad faith.
Morton County is a county in the U.S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2020 census, the population was 33,291, making it the sixth-most populous county in North Dakota. Its county seat is Mandan. Morton County is included in the Bismarck, ND, Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Academi, formerly known as Blackwater, is an American private military contractor founded on December 26, 1996, by former Navy SEAL officer Erik Prince. It was renamed Xe Services in 2009, and was again renamed to 'Academi' in 2011, after it was acquired by a group of private investors. In 2014, Academi merged with Triple Canopy to form Constellis Holdings.
TC Energy Corporation is a major North American energy company, based in the TC Energy Tower building in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, that develops and operates energy infrastructure in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The company operates three core businesses: Natural Gas Pipelines, Liquids Pipelines and Energy.
The Standing Rock Reservation lies across the border between North and South Dakota in the United States, and is inhabited by ethnic "Hunkpapa and Sihasapa bands of Lakota Oyate and the Ihunktuwona and Pabaksa bands of the Dakota Oyate," as well as the Hunkpatina Dakota. The Ihanktonwana Dakota are the Upper Yanktonai, part of the collective of Wiciyena. The sixth-largest Native American reservation in land area in the US, Standing Rock includes all of Sioux County, North Dakota, and all of Corson County, South Dakota, plus slivers of northern Dewey and Ziebach counties in South Dakota, along their northern county lines at Highway 20.
Energy Transfer LP is an American company engaged in natural gas and propane pipeline transport. It is organized under Delaware state laws and headquartered in Dallas, Texas. It was founded in 1995 by Ray Davis and Kelcy Warren, who remains Chairman and CEO. It owns a 36.4% interest in Dakota Access, LLC, the company responsible for developing the Dakota Access Pipeline.
Harambe was a western lowland gorilla who lived at the Cincinnati Zoo from 2014 to 2016, and previously at the Gladys Porter Zoo for 15 years. On May 28, 2016, a three-year-old boy climbed into a gorilla enclosure at the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden where he was grabbed and dragged by Harambe. Fearing for the boy's life, a zoo worker shot and killed Harambe. The incident was recorded on video and received broad international coverage and commentary, including controversy over the choice to use lethal force. A number of primatologists and conservationists wrote later that the zoo had no other choice under the circumstances, and that it highlighted the danger of zoo animals near humans and the need for better standards of care.
The Keystone Pipeline System is an oil pipeline system in Canada and the United States, commissioned in 2010 and owned by TC Energy and, as of March 2020, the Government of Alberta. It runs from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in Alberta to refineries in Illinois and Texas, and also to oil tank farms and an oil pipeline distribution center in Cushing, Oklahoma.
American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) is an American trade association, founded in 1902 as the National Petroleum Association. It became the National Petroleum Refiners Association in 1961, the National Petrochemical & Refiners Association in 1998 and became the AFPM in 2012. AFPM is a trade association representing American manufacturers of virtually the entire U.S. supply of gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, other fuels and home heating oil, and petrochemicals. AFPM represents companies including Chevron Corporation, ExxonMobil, Koch Industries, Marathon Petroleum and Valero Energy.
The Dakota Access Pipeline Protests, also called by the hashtag #NoDAPL, began in April 2016 as a grassroots opposition to the construction of Energy Transfer Partners' Dakota Access Pipeline in the northern United States and ended on February 23, 2017 when National Guard and law enforcement officers evicted the last remaining protesters. The pipeline runs from the Bakken oil fields in western North Dakota to southern Illinois, crossing beneath the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, as well as under part of Lake Oahe near the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. Many members of the Standing Rock tribe and surrounding communities consider the pipeline to be a serious threat to the region's water. The construction also directly threatens ancient burial grounds and cultural sites of historic importance.
David Archambault II is the former (2013–2017) tribal chairman of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in North Dakota. He was instrumental in the Dakota Access Pipeline protests and continues to work to promote an understanding of the historical treaty rights and indigenous rights of Native American people. Archambault holds degrees in Business Administration and Management. In 2017 he joined FirstNation HealthCare as its chief consulting officer.
LaDonna Tamakawastewin Brave Bull Allard was a Native American Dakota and Lakota historian, genealogist, and a matriarch of the water protector movement. In April 2016, she was one of the founders of the resistance camps of the Dakota Access Pipeline protests, aimed at halting the Dakota Access Pipeline near the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in North Dakota.
Water protectors are activists, organizers, and cultural workers focused on the defense of the world's water and water systems. The water protector name, analysis and style of activism arose from Indigenous communities in North America during the Dakota Access Pipeline protests at the Standing Rock Reservation, which began with an encampment on LaDonna Brave Bull Allard's land in April, 2016.
Greg Grey Cloud is a Crow Creek Nation educator, singer and activist. Grey Cloud is a co-founder of Wica Agli, a non-profit to end violence against women, children, and in general in the community. He is a notable ecologist and defender of Native American rights; gaining national attention when he sang an Honor Song in the Senate after the Keystone XL Pipeline bill was defeated, and in leading the Spirit Riders to protect the Standing Rock Reservation affected by the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline.
Unicorn Riot is a decentralized, nonprofit, left-wing media collective that originated online in 2015. The group is known for reporting on far-right organizations and sources of racial and economic injustice in the US. The non-hierarchical media organization operates in the US cities of Boston, Denver, Minneapolis/St. Paul, and Philadelphia as well as in South Africa. They produce live streams of political rallies and protests and are funded by viewer donation and grants.
#NODAPL, also referred to as the Dakota Access Pipeline protests, is a Twitter hashtag and social media campaign for the struggle against the proposed and partially built Dakota Access Pipeline. The role social media played in this movement is so substantial that the movement itself is now often referred to by its hashtag: #NoDAPL. The hashtag reflected a grassroots campaign that began in early 2016 in reaction to the approved construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline in the northern United States. The Standing Rock Sioux and allied organizations took legal action aimed at stopping construction of the project, while youth from the reservation began a social media campaign which gradually evolved into a larger movement with dozens of associated hashtags. The campaign aimed to raise awareness on the threat of the pipeline on the sacred burial grounds as well as the quality of water in the area. In June 2021, a federal judge struck down the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe's lawsuit, but left the option of reopening the case should any prior orders be violated.
The Bayou Bridge Pipeline (BBP) is a 162.5-mile crude oil pipeline from Lake Charles, Louisiana to St. James, Louisiana by Bayou Bridge, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Transfer Partners. Communities directly impacted by the pipeline voiced health, economic, and environmental concerns. They filed a lawsuit in opposition to the project and asked the Army Corps of Engineers for an Environmental Impact Statement. The Corps refused to do so and approved the project on 15 December 2017.
A member of Standing Rock in North and South Dakota, Phyllis Young has been an American Indian rights activist (Lakota/Dakota) for more than 40 years. She is most widely known for her leadership role in the anti-Dakota Access Pipeline struggle in 2016 and 2017. Young worked for Standing Rock from October 2015 to September 2017, ultimately as an organizer of the Oceti Sakowin Camp, where tens of thousands of protesters—known as “water protectors”—gathered over time to resist construction of the 1,172 mile long oil pipeline.
Chuck Cadotte is an American powwow dancer and powwow dance-style teacher. As an enrolled member of the Dakota Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, Chuck is dedicated to supporting Indians in connecting to their cultural roots through teaching traditional Native American dances through the Soaring Eagles dance group, giving traditional blessings and participating in rallies that support Native American land rights and sovereignty.
Man camps are temporary workforce housing to accommodate a large influx of high-paid workers in the resource extraction industries, especially in Canada and the United States. Twentieth century boom–bust housing cycles related to the oil and gas industry made companies reluctant to invest in permanent housing for temporary workforces.
The Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) or Bakken pipeline is a 1,172-mile-long (1,886 km) underground pipeline in the United States that has the ability to transport up to 750,000 barrels of light sweet crude oil per day. It begins in the shale oil fields of the Bakken Formation in northwest North Dakota and continues through South Dakota and Iowa to an oil terminal near Patoka, Illinois. Together with the Energy Transfer Crude Oil Pipeline from Patoka to Nederland, Texas, it forms the Bakken system. The pipeline transports 40 percent of the oil produced in the Bakken region.