Timaeus the Sophist

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Timaeus the Sophist (Greek : Τίμαιος ὁ Σοφιστής) was a Greek philosopher who lived sometime between the 1st and 4th centuries. Nothing is known about his life. He is the supposed author of a Lexicon of Platonic words which is still extant. The Lexicon made use of earlier commentaries on Plato which are now lost. It underwent significant additions and subtractions of text during later periods leading to the inclusion of many words which have nothing to do with Plato or his philosophy. The purpose of the Lexicon was to explain the usage of words and phrases which occur in Plato's works. The first detailed study of the manuscript and edition of the Lexicon was produced in the late 18th century by David Ruhnken (1754; 2nd ed. 1789) who also provided a detailed commentary. There was a revised version of Ruhnken's second edition by Georg Aenotheus Koch in 1828.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Platonism philosophical theory

Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. In narrower usage, platonism, rendered as a common noun, refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, and is the opposite of nominalism. Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato.

Commentaries on Plato refers to the great mass of literature produced, especially in the ancient and medieval world, to explain and clarify the works of Plato. Many Platonist philosophers in the centuries following Plato sought to clarify and summarise his thoughts, but it was during the Roman era, that the Neoplatonists, in particular, wrote many commentaries on individual dialogues of Plato, many of which survive to the present day.

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