Timestamping (computing)

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In computing, timestamping refers to the use of an electronic timestamp to provide a temporal order among a set of events.

Timestamping techniques are used in a variety of computing fields, from network management and computer security to concurrency control. [1] [2] For instance, a heartbeat network uses timestamping to monitor the nodes on a high availability computer cluster. [3]

Timestamping computer files (updating the timestamp in the per-file metadata every time a file is modified) makes it possible to use efficient build automation tools.

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A distributed system is a system whose components are located on different networked computers, which communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to one another. Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Process (computing)</span> Particular execution of a computer program

In computing, a process is the instance of a computer program that is being executed by one or many threads. There are many different process models, some of which are light weight, but almost all processes are rooted in an operating system (OS) process which comprises the program code, assigned system resources, physical and logical access permissions, and data structures to initiate, control and coordinate execution activity. Depending on the OS, a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Parallel computing</span> Programming paradigm in which many processes are executed simultaneously

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or processes are carried out simultaneously. Large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which can then be solved at the same time. There are several different forms of parallel computing: bit-level, instruction-level, data, and task parallelism. Parallelism has long been employed in high-performance computing, but has gained broader interest due to the physical constraints preventing frequency scaling. As power consumption by computers has become a concern in recent years, parallel computing has become the dominant paradigm in computer architecture, mainly in the form of multi-core processors.

In information technology and computer science, especially in the fields of computer programming, operating systems, multiprocessors, and databases, concurrency control ensures that correct results for concurrent operations are generated, while getting those results as quickly as possible.

Multiversion concurrency control, is a concurrency control method commonly used by database management systems to provide concurrent access to the database and in programming languages to implement transactional memory.

This page provides an index of articles thought to be Internet or Web related topics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timestamp</span> Information identifying when an event occurred

A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second. Timestamps do not have to be based on some absolute notion of time, however. They can have any epoch, can be relative to any arbitrary time, such as the power-on time of a system, or to some arbitrary time in the past.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Concurrency (computer science)</span> Ability to execute a task in a non-serial manner

In computer science, concurrency is the ability of different parts or units of a program, algorithm, or problem to be executed out-of-order or in partial order, without affecting the outcome. This allows for parallel execution of the concurrent units, which can significantly improve overall speed of the execution in multi-processor and multi-core systems. In more technical terms, concurrency refers to the decomposability of a program, algorithm, or problem into order-independent or partially-ordered components or units of computation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Unix time</span> Date and time representation system widely used in computing

Unix time is a date and time representation widely used in computing. It measures time by the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 UTC on 1 January 1970, the Unix epoch, without adjustments made due to leap seconds. In modern computing, values are sometimes stored with higher granularity, such as microseconds or nanoseconds.

Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) is a protocol developed by the International Imaging Industry Association to allow the transfer of images from digital cameras to computers and other peripheral devices without the need of additional device drivers. The protocol has been standardized as ISO 15740.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Merkle tree</span> Type of data structure

In cryptography and computer science, a hash tree or Merkle tree is a tree in which every "leaf" (node) is labelled with the cryptographic hash of a data block, and every node that is not a leaf is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. A hash tree allows efficient and secure verification of the contents of a large data structure. A hash tree is a generalization of a hash list and a hash chain.

Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed concurrently—during overlapping time periods—instead of sequentially—with one completing before the next starts.

Replication in computing involves sharing information so as to ensure consistency between redundant resources, such as software or hardware components, to improve reliability, fault-tolerance, or accessibility.

File transfer is the transmission of a computer file through a communication channel from one computer system to another. Typically, file transfer is mediated by a communications protocol. In the history of computing, numerous file transfer protocols have been designed for different contexts.

In computing, a shared resource, or network share, is a computer resource made available from one host to other hosts on a computer network. It is a device or piece of information on a computer that can be remotely accessed from another computer transparently as if it were a resource in the local machine. Network sharing is made possible by inter-process communication over the network.

A clustered file system is a file system which is shared by being simultaneously mounted on multiple servers. There are several approaches to clustering, most of which do not employ a clustered file system. Clustered file systems can provide features like location-independent addressing and redundancy which improve reliability or reduce the complexity of the other parts of the cluster. Parallel file systems are a type of clustered file system that spread data across multiple storage nodes, usually for redundancy or performance.

In concurrency control of databases, transaction processing, and other transactional distributed applications, global serializability is a property of a global schedule of transactions. A global schedule is the unified schedule of all the individual database schedules in a multidatabase environment. Complying with global serializability means that the global schedule is serializable, has the serializability property, while each component database (module) has a serializable schedule as well. In other words, a collection of serializable components provides overall system serializability, which is usually incorrect. A need in correctness across databases in multidatabase systems makes global serializability a major goal for global concurrency control. With the proliferation of the Internet, Cloud computing, Grid computing, and small, portable, powerful computing devices, as well as increase in systems management sophistication, the need for atomic distributed transactions and thus effective global serializability techniques, to ensure correctness in and among distributed transactional applications, seems to increase.

Distributed concurrency control is the concurrency control of a system distributed over a computer network.

This page is a glossary of Operating systems terminology.

In distributed computing, a conflict-free replicated data type (CRDT) is a data structure that is replicated across multiple computers in a network, with the following features:

  1. The application can update any replica independently, concurrently and without coordinating with other replicas.
  2. An algorithm automatically resolves any inconsistencies that might occur.
  3. Although replicas may have different state at any particular point in time, they are guaranteed to eventually converge.


  1. Advances in Computer Science and Information Technology by Tai-hoon Kim, Hojjat Adeli 2010 ISBN   3642135765 page 183
  2. Computer aided verification: 13th International conference, by Gérard Berry, Hubert Comon, A. Finkel 2001 ISBN   3540423451 page 423
  3. Theoretical Aspects of Distributed Computing in Sensor Networks by Sotiris Nikoletseas and José D.P. Rolim 2011 ISBN   3642148484 page 304