Timothy S. Jost is Robert L. Willett Family Professor of Law, emeritus, at Washington and Lee University School of Law. A top expert on American health law and policy, he is a co-author of Health Law (first edition 1987), a casebook that pioneered health law as a teaching and research field in American law schools.His analysis and arguments regarding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, Obamacare) have been widely quoted.
Jost graduated from UC Santa Cruz in 1970, and received his J.D. from the University of Chicago Law School in 1975.He began his legal career at the Legal Assistance Foundation of Chicago, where he used litigation and policy reform to improve health care for residents of Chicago's Uptown neighborhood. From 1981-2001 he was a professor at the Ohio State University Moritz College of Law, and from 2001-2014 he was Robert L. Willett Family Professor of Law at Washington and Lee. As a two-time Fulbright Scholar, he visited Wolfson College, Oxford in 1988-89 and the University of Göttingen in 1996-97. He is the author or co-author of eleven books and over 150 articles, book chapters, and reviews. He was elected to the National Academy of Medicine in 2011.
When the Affordable Care Act became law in March, 2010, it was the most consequential reform of the American health care system in over four decades. It was also an enormously complex piece of legislation, and one that faced immediate legal challenges. Beginning in 2009, Jost began contributing to a blog hosted by Health Affairs, a leading health-policy journal, first following the course of the ACA through the legislative process and then explaining its provisions and associated regulations to academics, journalists, policymakers, lawyers, and other readers. Over eight years, Jost contributed over six hundred posts. [ citation needed ] Jost also served as an advocate for the ACA in briefs presented to the Supreme Court during the cases King v. Burwell, House v. Burwell, and California v. Texas. In the words of Don Berwick, Administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services under Barack Obama, "Tim Jost is to American health care policy what a GPS is to a dark and unfamiliar road; what Carl Sagan was to astronomy; what Barbara Tuchman was to history. He makes the potentially inaccessible accessible."Jost has also been widely quoted in the American media, including by NPR, the New York Times, Washington Post, CNN, and other media.
Jost is a member of Community Mennonite Church, a Mennonite Church USA congregation in Harrisonburg, Virginia.He is married to Ruth Stoltzfus Jost.
Jonathan H. Adler is an American legal commentator and law professor at the Case Western Reserve University School of Law. He has been recognized as one of the most cited professors in the field of environmental law. His research is also credited with inspiring litigation that challenged the Obama Administration's implementation of the Affordable Care Act, resulting in the Supreme Court's decision in King v. Burwell.
Healthcare reform in the United States has a long history. Reforms have often been proposed but have rarely been accomplished. In 2010, landmark reform was passed through two federal statutes enacted in 2010: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), signed March 23, 2010, and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, which amended the PPACA and became law on March 30, 2010.
Reed Charles O'Connor is a United States district judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas. He was nominated by President George W. Bush in 2007.
The Medicaid Estate Recovery Program (MERP) is a process initiated by state governments in the United States for recovering payments made under the Medicaid program to its beneficiaries. The government recovers the sum of payments from the estate at the time of death of the program beneficiary.
The Affordable Care Act (ACA), formally known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and colloquially known as Obamacare, is a landmark U.S. federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 amendment, it represents the U.S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.
A contraceptive mandate is a government regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans.
Since the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), there have been numerous actions in federal courts to challenge the constitutionality of the legislation. They include challenges by states against the ACA, reactions from legal experts with respect to its constitutionality, several federal court rulings on the ACA's constitutionality, the final ruling on the constitutionality of the legislation by the U.S. Supreme Court in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, and notable subsequent lawsuits challenging the ACA. The Supreme Court upheld ACA for a third time in a June 2021 decision.
Joel Kupersmith, M.D., an American physician, is the former dean of the Texas Tech University School of Medicine, and head of the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Veterans Affairs. He is the former Director, Veterans Initiatives and Professor of Medicine at Georgetown University.
The Save American Workers Act of 2013 is a bill that would change how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act defines full-time worker, by raising the threshold for offering employer-provided insurance from a minimum of 30 to 40 work hours a week. This is in order to remove the incentive some companies may have to reduce their employees' hours in order to avoid the employer healthcare mandate.
King v. Burwell, 576 U.S. 473 (2015), was a 6–3 decision by the Supreme Court of the United States interpreting provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The Court's decision upheld, as consistent with the statute, the outlay of premium tax credits to qualifying persons in all states, both those with exchanges established directly by a state, and those otherwise established by the Department of Health and Human Services.
United States House of Representatives v. Azar, et al. was a lawsuit in which the United States House of Representatives sued departments and officials within the executive branch, asserting that President Barack Obama acted illegally in his implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The lawsuit was touted by House Speaker John Boehner, and asserted that President Obama exceeded his constitutional authority in delaying the implementation of the employer mandate of the Affordable Care Act and also addressed "Republican opposition to an estimated $175 billion in payments to insurance companies over the next 10 years as part of a cost-sharing program under the healthcare law."
The premium tax credit (PTC) is a refundable tax credit in the United States. It is payable by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to eligible households that have obtained healthcare insurance by a healthcare exchange (marketplace) in the tax year. It can be paid in advance directly to a healthcare insurance company to offset the cost of monthly health insurance premiums.
The Health Equity and Access Reform Today Act of 1993 was a health care reform bill introduced into the United States Senate on November 22, 1993 by John Chafee, a Republican senator from Rhode Island, and Chair of the Republican Health Task Force. It was co-sponsored by eighteen other Republican senators, including then-Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole, and two Democratic Senators, Bob Kerrey of Nebraska and David Boren of Oklahoma. It was read twice in the Senate, but was neither debated nor voted upon. Many of the ideas in the bill were originally proposed by Stuart Butler in 1989, when he worked at the Heritage Foundation, however, some conservatives believed that it was too liberal. It was introduced as an alternative to legislation unveiled earlier that year by then-President Bill Clinton. As a bipartisan bill, it was one of a few comprehensive health care reform bills not to be introduced along party lines.
Kosali Ilayperuma Simon is the Herman B Wells Endowed Professor in health economics at School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA) at Indiana University which she joined in 2010.
The Bipartisan Health Care Stabilization Act of 2017 was a 2017 proposed compromise reached by senator and HELP Committee chairman Lamar Alexander and senator and HELP Committee ranking member Patty Murray to amend the Affordable Care Act to fund cost-sharing reductions subsidies. The plan will also provide more flexibility for state waivers, allow a new "Copper Plan" or catastrophic coverage for those under 30, allow interstate insurance compacts, and redirect consumer fees to states for outreach. President Trump had stopped paying the cost sharing subsidies and the Congressional Budget Office estimated his action would cost $200 billion, cause insurance sold on the exchange to cost 20% more and cause one million people to lose insurance.
Enhanced Direct Enrollment (EDE) is a provision in the United States that allows certain private entities, including insurance carriers and web-brokers, to directly enroll consumers in Qualified Health Plans through the Health Insurance Marketplace without redirecting consumers to Healthcare.gov. Approved EDE partners may access a suite of APIs which allow them to directly submit and update applications on the federal exchange.
California v. Texas, 593 U.S. ___ (2021), was a United States Supreme Court case that dealt with the constitutionality of the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA), colloquially known as Obamacare. It was the third such challenge to the ACA seen by the Supreme Court since its enactment. The case in California followed after the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 and the change to the tax penalty amount for Americans without required insurance that reduced the "individual mandate" to zero, effective for months after December 31, 2018. The District Court of the Northern District of Texas concluded that this individual mandate was a critical provision of the ACA and that, with a penalty amount equal to zero, some or all of the ACA was potentially unconstitutional as an improper use of Congress's taxation powers.
Howard P. Forman is a professor of radiology, economics, public health, and management at Yale University. Forman is known for his commentary on the U.S. government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, his political and healthcare writing on Twitter, and his role in developing national leaders in healthcare.
Little Sisters of the Poor Saints Peter and Paul Home v. Pennsylvania, 591 U.S. ___ (2020), was a United States Supreme Court case involving ongoing conflicts between the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) over the ACA's contraceptive mandate. The ACA exempts nonprofit religious organizations from complying with the mandate, which for-profit religious organizations objected to.
Brendan G. Carr is an American medical doctor and professor. He is Professor and Endowed System Chair of Emergency Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the Mount Sinai Health System.