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A **tippe top** is a kind of top that when spun, will spontaneously invert itself to spin on its narrow stem. It was invented by a German nurse, Helene Sperl in 1898.^{ [1] }

A tippe top usually has a body shaped like a truncated sphere, with a short narrow stem attached perpendicular to the center of the flat circular surface of truncation. The stem may be used as a handle to pick up the top, and is also used to spin the top into motion.

When a tippe top is spun at a high angular velocity, its stem slowly tilts downwards more and more until it suddenly lifts the body of the spinning top off the ground, with the stem now pointing downward. Eventually, as the top's spinning rate slows, it loses stability and eventually topples over, like an ordinary top.

At first glance the top's inversion may mistakenly seem to be a situation where the object spontaneously gains overall energy. This is because the inversion of the top raises the object's center of mass, which means the potential energy has in fact increased. What causes the inversion (and the increase in potential energy) is a torque due to surface friction, which also decreases the kinetic energy of the top, so the total energy does not actually increase.^{ [2] }

Once the top is spinning on its stem, it does *not* spin in the opposite direction to which its spin was initiated. For example, if the top was spun clockwise, as soon as it is on its stem, it will be spinning clockwise viewed from above. This constant spin direction is due to conservation of angular momentum.

It is usually assumed that the speed of the tippe top at the point of contact with the plane is zero (i.e. there is no slippage). However, as indicated by P. Contensou,^{ [3] } this assumption does not lead to a correct physical description of the top's motion. The unusual behavior of the top can be fully described by considering dry friction forces at the contact point.^{ [4] }^{ [5] }

- Euler's Disk – Another spinning physics toy that exhibits surprising behavior

- Bou-Rabee, Nawaf; Jerrold E. Marsden; Louis A. Romero (2008). "Dissipation-Induced Heteroclinic Orbits in Tippe Tops" (PDF).
*SIAM Review*.**50**(2): 325. Bibcode:2008SIAMR..50..325B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.218.7650 . doi:10.1137/080716177. - Glad, S. Torkel; Daniel Petersson; Stefan Rauch-Wojciechowski (2007). "Phase Space of Rolling Solutions of the Tippe Top".
*Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications*.**3**: 041. arXiv: nlin/0703016 . Bibcode:2007SIGMA...3..041G. doi:10.3842/SIGMA.2007.041. S2CID 14013853. - Cohen, R. J. (1977). "The tippe top revisited".
*American Journal of Physics*.**45**(1): 12–17. Bibcode:1977AmJPh..45...12C. doi:10.1119/1.10926. - Ebenfeld, S.; Scheck, F. (1995). "A New Analysis of the Tippe Top: Asymptotic States and Liapunov Stability".
*Annals of Physics*.**243**(2): 195. arXiv: chao-dyn/9501008 . Bibcode:1995AnPhy.243..195E. doi:10.1006/aphy.1995.1097. S2CID 15182753. - Leine, R.I.; Glocker, Ch. (2003). "A set-valued force law for spatial Coulomb-Contensou friction".
*European Journal of Mechanics*.**22**(2): 193–216. Bibcode:2003EJMS...22..193L. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.508.8948 . doi:10.1016/S0997-7538(03)00025-1.

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A **spinning top**, or simply a **top**, is a toy with a squat body and a sharp point at the bottom, designed to be spun on its vertical axis, balancing on the tip due to the gyroscopic effect.

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In physics, a **parity transformation** is the flip in the sign of *one* spatial coordinate. In three dimensions, it can also refer to the simultaneous flip in the sign of all three spatial coordinates :

In atomic physics, the **electron magnetic moment**, or more specifically the **electron magnetic dipole moment**, is the magnetic moment of an electron resulting from its intrinsic properties of spin and electric charge. The value of the electron magnetic moment is −9.2847647043(28)×10^{−24} J⋅T^{−1}. The electron magnetic moment has been measured to an accuracy of 1.7×10^{−13} relative to the Bohr magneton.

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A **rattleback** is a semi-ellipsoidal top which will rotate on its axis in a preferred direction. If spun in the opposite direction, it becomes unstable, "rattles" to a stop and reverses its spin to the preferred direction.

In atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum chemistry, the **molecular Hamiltonian ** is the Hamiltonian operator representing the energy of the electrons and nuclei in a molecule. This operator and the associated Schrödinger equation play a central role in computational chemistry and physics for computing properties of molecules and aggregates of molecules, such as thermal conductivity, specific heat, electrical conductivity, optical, and magnetic properties, and reactivity.

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**Michał Gryziński** was a Polish nuclear physicist, plasma physics specialist and the founder of the free-fall atomic model, an alternative theoretical formulation, a classical approximation asking for trajectories of electron averaging to probability densities described by quantum mechanics.

**Symmetries in quantum mechanics** describe features of spacetime and particles which are unchanged under some transformation, in the context of quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, and with applications in the mathematical formulation of the standard model and condensed matter physics. In general, symmetry in physics, invariance, and conservation laws, are fundamentally important constraints for formulating physical theories and models. In practice, they are powerful methods for solving problems and predicting what can happen. While conservation laws do not always give the answer to the problem directly, they form the correct constraints and the first steps to solving a multitude of problems.

In quantum chemistry and physics, the **Lieb–Oxford inequality** provides a lower bound for the indirect part of the Coulomb energy of a quantum mechanical system. It is named after Elliott H. Lieb and Stephen Oxford.

The **physics of a bouncing ball** concerns the physical behaviour of bouncing balls, particularly its motion before, during, and after impact against the surface of another body. Several aspects of a bouncing ball's behaviour serve as an introduction to mechanics in high school or undergraduate level physics courses. However, the exact modelling of the behaviour is complex and of interest in sports engineering.

- ↑ "Espacenet – search results".
- ↑ "Professor Robert B. Laughlin, Department of Physics, Stanford University".
*large.stanford.edu*. Retrieved 2022-03-25. - ↑ P. Contensou, Couplage entre frottement de glissement et frottement de pivotement dans la théorie de la toupie Symposium Celerina, Gyrodynamics, August 20–23, 1962 (2nd edn.), Springer (1963)
- ↑ Leine, R.I. and Glocker, Ch.: A set-valued force law for spatial Coulomb-Contensou friction,
*European Journal of Mechanics*, Vol. 22,2, pp. 193-216, 2003. - ↑ V.Ph. Zhuravlev and D.M. Klimov, On the dynamics of the Thompson top (tippe top) on the plane with real dry friction,
*Mechanics of Solids*, 40(6):117-127, 2005.

- DE 63261 "Wendekreisel" filed by Fräulein Helene Sperl on 07.10.1891, published on 12.07.1892"

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