IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
|Location||Southern Province Sierra Leone|
|Area||1,200 hectares (12 km2)|
|Established||1 January 1987|
|Governing body||Environmental Foundation for Africa|
Tiwai Island (Mende for 'Big Island') is a wildlife sanctuary and tourist site in Sierra Leone. Run by the non-governmental organization Environmental Foundation for Africa, Tiwai is 12 square kilometers in area and located on the Moa River in the Southern Province. It is also one of the largest inland islands in the country.
Tiwai belong to the Barri people until the late 19th century when Queen Nyarroh the Barri Chief gave half the Island to the Koya Chief whose territory was on the opposite side of the River Moa River where the Island is located. From then on both peoples share ownership of the Island.In the late 1970s the Island was recognised as a special biosphere for wildlife conservation. Numerous natural scientists visited the island during the 1970s and 1980s, researching various aspects of its flora and fauna. Subsequently, some researchers along with the Barri and Koya people then requested that it became a wildlife sanctuary and in 1987 it was official designated a game reserve. Activities including community conservation program, ecological research, wildlife management, tourism and forestry management training took place on the Island. Then, in 1991 civil war broke out in Sierra Leone financial support for the Tiwai was stopped and researchers and tourists were unable to reach the Island. After the end of the civil war the Environmental Foundation for Africa, a local Sierra Leonean NGO, rebuilt both tourism and researcher facilities on the island.
Tiwai Island is located in the Southern Province, 15 km from the town of Potoru on the Moa River 60 km from the Atlantic Ocean. The Island has area of 1,200 hectares (12 km2) and is between 80 and 100 meters above sea level. The climate on the Island is tropical with a rainy season between May and October and a dry season between December and March. The average temperature is 27°C and rainfall is about 3,000 mm a year.
The Island is home to a population of pygmy hippopotamus, over 135 different species of birds and "one of the highest concentration and diversity of primates in the world … 11 species."
The Loma Mountains are the highest mountain range in Sierra Leone. The highest peak is Mount Bintumani which rises to a height of 1,945 metres (6,381 ft). The area has been designated a non-hunting forest reserve since 1952. The reserve covers an area of 33,201 hectares.
Outamba-Kilimi National Park is located in northwest Sierra Leone near the border with the Republic of Guinea. The park is divided into two areas, Outamba (741 km²) and Kilimi (368 km²). The area became a game reserve in 1974, and was formally gazetted as a National Park in October 1995. The park is named after its highest peak in one part, Mount Outamba, and its longest river in the other, River Kilimi. The area was originally chosen for preservation as it contains a large number of chimpanzees. The vegetation is called woodland savanna, with a mixture of jungle and savanna.
Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary also known as the Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Little Rann of Kutch in the Gujarat state of India. It is spread over an area of 4954 km².
The Environmental Foundation for Africa (EFA) is a Sierra Leone non-governmental organization founded in 1992 that aims to protect and restore the environment in West Africa.
India is home to a large variety of animals. It is a biodiversity hotspot with its various ecosystems ranging from the Himalayas in the north to the evergreen rain-forests in the south, the desert sands of the west to the marshy mangroves of the east. India, lying within the Indomalayan realm, is home to about 7.6% of mammal, 14.7% of amphibian, 6% of bird, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species. India's forest lands nurture about 500 species of mammals and 2000+ bird species. This richness of Indian wildlife has been celebrated since time immemorial. Four of India’s national symbols consist India’s mammals.
The wildlife of Sierra Leone is very diverse due to the variety of different habitats within the country. Sierra Leone is home to approximately 2090 known higher plant species, 147 known species of mammals, 172 known breeding bird species, 67 known reptile species, 35 known amphibian species and 99 known species of fish.
The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) is a Kenyan state corporation that was established in 1989 to conserve and manage Kenya’s wildlife. It is established under an Act of Parliament Cap 376 with the mandate to conserve and manage wildlife in Kenya, and to enforce related laws and regulations. It manages the biodiversity of the country, protecting and conserving the flora and fauna.
The Moa River is a river in west Africa. It arises in the highlands of Guinea and flows southwest, forming parts of the Guinea–Liberia and the Guinea – Sierra Leone borders. It flows into the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. Yenga, Tiwai Island and Sulima are located on the Moa.
The Sierra Leone River is a river estuary on the Atlantic Ocean in Western Sierra Leone. It is formed by the Bankasoka River and Rokel River and is between 4 and 10 miles wide (6–16 km) and 25 miles (40 km) long. It holds the major ports of Queen Elizabeth II Quay and Pepel. The estuary is also important for shipping. It is the largest natural harbour in the African continent. Several islands, including Tasso Island, Tombo Island, and the historically important Bunce Island, are located in the estuary.
Western Area Peninsula National Park is a protected area in Sierra Leone. It covers an area of 183.37 km².
Kangari Hills Forest Reserve is a non-hunting forest reserve in the centre of Sierra Leone. The area became a forest reserve in 1924. Lying between 200 and 500 metres above sea level, the reserve has an area of 8,573 hectares (85.73 km2), although parts of it area have been encroached upon by farming and mining. The Reserve is one of the few places in Sierra Leone where the endangered forest elephant survives.
Farangbaia Forest Reserve is a forest reserve with a rainforest ecosystem in Sierra Leone. The Reserve covers an area of 1,260 hectares, is located approximately 10 km to the south-east of the town of Bumbuna and forms part of the catchment area for the Seli River. Since the outbreak of Sierra Leone civil war in 1991 much of the reserve has become farmland and bush forest and there a number sawmills operating there.
The Tingi Hills Forest Reserve is located in a mountain range in the east of Sierra Leone and occupies an area of 118.85 km2 (45.89 sq mi). It became a forest reserve in 1947 and a non-hunting forest reserve in 1973. The area reaches from an altitude of 400 to 1850 metres at the north peak of the dual peaked Sankan Biriwa massif. In the lower regions the area consists of forest interspersed with savannah then moves into shrub savannah and then mountain grassland at higher altitudes. Over 200 species of birds have been recorded in the area and the reserve is also home to western baboons and forest elephants.
The Bo Plains are located in the south of Sierra Leone by the city of Bo. The plains are mainly made up of savannah and 2,590 hectares of the area have been proposed as a game sanctuary.
Kasewe Forest Reserve is an area of hills in the Moyamba District of Sierra Leone. It is designated as a forest reserve and contains moist semi-deciduous and evergreen forests that cover an area of 1.224 km2. Made up of volcanic rock the hills stand about 500m above the interior plains of the country. The nearest town is Lunsar.
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Nyarroh was a female Mende chief in Bandasuma, in present-day Sierra Leone. Little is recorded about Nyarroh prior to the 1880s; however, British reports in the 1880s consider her one of the main chiefs in the area with control over important roads from the coast to inland areas. Nyarroh's position at a critical juncture led her to host many negotiations between British officers and the Mende chiefs in the interior of the country. Like many of the other Mende chiefs, she took an active role in warfare and in 1887 she was taken captive and held for many months. She signed a friendship agreement with the British in 1890 and became part of their administration of the colony until her death in 1914.
The protected areas of Namibia include its national parks and reserves. With the 2010 declaration of Dorob National Park, Namibia became the first and only country to have its entire coastline protected through a national parks network. Protected areas are subdivided into game reserves and/or nature reserves, such as special protected area, wilderness areas, natural areas, and development areas. There are also recreation reserves. Facilities in the national parks are operated by Namibia Wildlife Resorts. Over 19% of Namibia is protected, an area of some 130,000 square kilometres. However, the Ministry of Environment & Tourism auctions limited hunting rights within its protected areas. The Namibia Nature Foundation, an NGO, was established in 1987 to raise and administer funds for the conservation of wildlife and protected area management. Communal Wildlife Conservancies in Namibia help promote sustainable natural resource management by giving local communities rights to wildlife management and tourism.
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