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Definition and cellular localization

TMEM110, also designated as STIMATE [1] (for STIM-activating enhancer), is an ER-resident multi-transmembrane protein identified through a proteomic study on the ER-PM junctions. The ER-PM junctions are defined as specialized junctional sites, also known as membrane contact sites, that connect the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM), and are closely implicated in controlling lipid and calcium homeostasis in mammalian cells. [2]



TMEM110 is a positive modulator of calcium flux mediated by the STIM-ORAI signaling in vertebrates. [1] STIMATE can physically associate with STIM1 to promote conformational switch of STIM1 from inactive toward an activated state, [3] [4] thereby coupling to and gating the ORAI calcium channels on the plasma membrane.

Depletion of TMEM110 with RNAi knockdown or Cas9-mediated gene disruption substantially reduces the puncta formation of STIM1 at ER-PM junctions and remarkably inhibits the calcium/calcineurin/NFAT signaling axis. [5] [6] More genetic and biochemical studies are needed to uncover more uncharted functions of this ER-resident protein at ER-PM junctions.

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Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3 is an inositol phosphate signaling molecule. It is made by hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid that is located in the plasma membrane, by phospholipase C (PLC). Together with diacylglycerol (DAG), IP3 is a second messenger molecule used in signal transduction in biological cells. While DAG stays inside the membrane, IP3 is soluble and diffuses through the cell, where it binds to its receptor, which is a calcium channel located in the endoplasmic reticulum. When IP3 binds its receptor, calcium is released into the cytosol, thereby activating various calcium regulated intracellular signals.

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