|Ruler of The State
|1052 – 1053
Toghrul of Ghazna (full name: Qiwam ad-Dawlah Abu Said Toghrul), was a Turkic slave general and usurper of the Ghaznavid throne. He was originally a ghulam in the service of the Ghaznavid Empire. Following his usurpation of the Ghaznavid throne from Abd al-Rashid and massacre of eleven Ghaznavid royal princes, he was known as the accursed, the inauspicious, the arrogant and the contemptible.
Toghrul started his service as a ghulam of Sultan Mahmud and by the reign of Abd al-Rashid had risen to commander in chief of the army.
In 1042–43, Toghrul invaded Sistan with 2,000 troops and captured a Saffarid family member Abu n-Nasr. Abu n-Nasr was taken back to Ghazna and later exchanged for a son of the Ghaznavid vizier, Ahmed Hasan Maimandi.However, Toghrul continued onward, occupying Karkuya and massacring both Muslim and Zoroastrian populations indiscriminately.
Toghrul led an army against Alp Arslan and won a victory at Hupyan in the Hindu Kush during the winter of 1051.After defeating Alp Arslan, Toghrul marched to Sistan. He besieged the fortress of Taq and held it under siege for a month, defeating a Seljuq relief army, commanded by Payghu.
Unable to take Taq, Toghrul marched his army to Ghazna, sending letters to Abd al-Rashid asserting the disloyalty of the army. Rashid, filled with terror of a rebellion, locked himself up in the citadel. Upon his arrival, Toghrul gained the support of the garrison, captured Abd al-Rashid, and had Abd al-Rashid and eleven other Ghaznavid princes executed.
With Ghazna under his control, Toghrul sent letters to the ghulam general Kirghiz, commander of the Ghaznavid forces in India, seeking his support. Kirghiz responded by condemning Toghrul and his massacre of the Ghaznavid princes. Meanwhile, Toghrul married Mas'ud I's daughter to legitimise his reign and started minting coins in his image.Despite this, Kirghiz sent letters to the garrison and army commanders which motivated a ghulam named Nushtigin to murder Toghrul. By the time Kirghiz and his army arrived, Toghrul's head was being paraded around Ghazna.
Ghazni, historically known as Ghaznain (غزنين) or Ghazna (غزنه), also transliterated as Ghuznee, and anciently known as Alexandria in Opiana, is a city in southeastern Afghanistan with a population of around 190,000 people. The city is strategically located along Highway 1, which has served as the main road between Kabul and Kandahar for thousands of years. Situated on a plateau at 2,219 metres (7,280 ft) above sea level, the city is 150 kilometres (93 mi) south of Kabul and is the capital of Ghazni Province. The name Ghazni drives from the Persian word ganj ‘treasure’.
Abūʾl-Faḍl Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn Bayhaqī, better known as Abu'l-Faḍl Bayhaqi, was a secretary, historian and author.
Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi, better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk was a Persian scholar, jurist, political philosopher and Vizier of the Seljuk Empire. Rising from a lowly position within the empire, he effectively became the de facto ruler of the empire for 20 years after the assassination of Sultan Alp Arslan in 1072, serving as the archetypal "good vizier". Viewed by many historians as "the most important statesman in Islamic history", the policies implemented by Nizam al-Mulk would go on to remain as the basic foundation for administrative state structures in the Muslim world up until the 20th century.
The Ghaznavid dynasty or the Ghaznavid Empire, was a Persianate Muslim dynasty and empire of Turkic mamluk origin, ruling at its greatest extent, large parts of Persia, Khorasan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186. The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin upon his succession to the rule of Ghazna after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was an ex-general of the Samanid Empire from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush in Greater Khorasan.
The Samanid Empire, also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply as the Samanids, was a Persianate Sunni Muslim empire, of Iranian dehqan origin. The empire was centred in Khorasan and Transoxiana; at its greatest extent encompassing Persia and Central Asia, from 819 to 999.
Ya'qūb ibn al-Layth al-Saffār, was a coppersmith and the founder of the Saffarid dynasty of Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj. Under his military leadership, he conquered much of the eastern portions of Greater Iran consisting of modern-day Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan as well as portions of western Pakistan and a small part of Iraq. He was succeeded by his brother, Amr ibn al-Layth.
Abd al-Malik I was amir of the Samanid Empire from 954 to 961. He was the son and successor of Nuh I. His reign was marked by internal strife, with the Turkic slave-soldiers increasing in power. He died after falling from his horse during a game of polo at Bukhara. He was succeeded by his brother Mansur I, who was put on the throne by a faction of ghulams led by the Turkic slave-commander, Fa'iq Khassa.
Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn Julugh Farrukhi Sistani, better known as Farrukhi Sistani was one of the most prominent Persian court poets in the history of Persian literature. Initially serving a dehqan in Sistan and the Muhtajids in Chaghaniyan, Farrukhi entered the service of the Ghaznavids in 1017, where he became the panegyrist of its rulers, Mahmud and Mas'ud I, as well as numerous viziers and princes.
Alp-Tegin, or Alptekin, was a Turkic slave commander of the Samanid Empire, who would later become the semi-independent governor of Ghazna from 962 until his death in 963.
Abu Ahmad Wali 'l-Dawla Khalaf ibn Ahmad was the Saffarid amir of Sistan from 963 until 1002. Although he was renowned in the eastern Islamic world as a scholar, his reign was characterized by violence and instability, and Saffarid rule over Sistan came to an end with his deposition.
Muhammad of Ghazni was sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire briefly in 1030, and then later from 1040 to 1041. He ascended the throne upon the death of his father Mahmud in 1030. He was the younger of a set of twins; this circumstance resulted in civil strife. His reign lasted five months before he was overthrown by his twin Ma'sud I, after which he was blinded and imprisoned. Nine years later he was reinstated for a year before being slain by his nephew Maw'dud. According to Ferishta, his reign lasted only 50 days before he was blinded and imprisoned on the order of Ma'sud I. A year later he was executed by his nephew Maw'dud after losing a battle in Nangrahar.
Shahāb-ud-Dawla Mawdūd, known as Mawdud of Ghazni, was a sultan of the Ghaznavids from 1041 – 1050. He seized the throne of the sultanate from his uncle, Muhammad of Ghazni, in revenge for the murder of his father, Mas'ud I of Ghazni. His brother Majdud in Lahore did not recognize him as sultan, but his sudden death paved the way for Mawdud to exercise control over the eastern portion of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Arslan-Shah of Ghazna was the Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from 1116 to 1117 C.E.
Bahram-Shah was Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from 25 February 1117 to 1152. Son of Mas'ud III and Gawhar Khatun, sister of Sanjar, sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire. During his entire reign, his empire was a tributary of the Great Seljuq Empire.
Farrukh-Zad, was sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from. His reign was considered one of benevolence, prosperity and tranquility for the Ghaznavid empire. It was free of the chaotic turbulence and greed from palace ghulams until the end of his reign. He was a very devout Muslim and fasted during Rajab, Sha'ban and Ramadan.
Ibrahim of Ghazna was sultan of the Ghaznavid empire from April 1059 until his death in 1099. Having been imprisoned at the fortress of Barghund, he was one of the Ghaznavid princes that escaped the usurper Toghrul's massacre in 1052. After his brother Farrukh-Zad took power, Ibrahim was sent to the fortress of Nay, the same fortress where the poet Masud Sa'd Salman would later be imprisoned for ten years.
Abuʾl-Ḥasan al-Qāsim Aḥmad ibn Ḥasan Maymandī was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud of Ghazni and the latter's son Mas'ud I of Ghazni.
Abd al-Razzaq Maymandi was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Maw'dud Ghaznavi and Abd al-Rashid.
Böritigin, also known as Ibrahim ibn Nasr or Tamghach Khan Ibrahim, was a Karakhanid ruler in Transoxiana from 1038 to 1068. He was one of the greatest rulers of the dynasty.
Ghazni is a city in southeastern Afghanistan, which served as the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire from 977 to 1163.
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