Last updated

The epithet tokkie is used in the Netherlands as a pejorative noun for lower-class people who often are seen as likely to engage in anti-social behaviour, similar to the English chav, the Scottish ned, the South African zef and the Australian bogan.

The term is derived from the surname Tokkie and came into general use when the Dutch family Tokkie [1] (who bear some resemblance to the fictional Flodder family from the eponymous Dutch comedy film of the 1980s) [1] gained notoriety when they were portrayed on national television in 2004 and 2005. Of this family only the mother (Hanna Tokkie) bears the surname Tokkie. The other family members bear the surname Ruijmgaart (after the father, Gerrie Ruijmgaart).

The word has been included in the authoritative Van Dale dictionary. [2]

Related Research Articles

When a person assumes the family name of their spouse, in some countries that name replaces the person's previous surname, which in the case of the wife is called the maiden name, whereas a married name is a family name or surname adopted by a person upon marriage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Surname</span> Hereditary portion of a personal name

A surname, family name, or last name is the mostly hereditary portion of one's personal name that indicates one's family. It is typically combined with a given name to form the full name of a person.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baron</span> Title of nobility in Europe

Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary, in various European countries, either current or historical. The female equivalent is baroness. Typically, the title denotes an aristocrat who ranks higher than a lord or knight, but lower than a viscount or count. Often, barons hold their fief – their lands and income – directly from the monarch. Barons are less often the vassals of other nobles. In many kingdoms, they were entitled to wear a smaller form of a crown called a coronet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Middle name</span> Additional portion of a personal name

In various cultures, a middlename is a portion of a personal name that is written between the person's first given name and their surname. A middle name is often abbreviated and is then called middle initial or just initial.

Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names and a surname. The Vorname is usually gender-specific. A name is usually cited in the "Western order" of "given name, surname". The most common exceptions are alphabetized list of surnames, e.g. "Bach, Johann Sebastian", as well as some official documents and spoken southern German dialects. In most of this, the German conventions parallel the naming conventions in most of Western and Central Europe, including English, Dutch, Italian, and French. There are some vestiges of a patronymic system as they survive in parts of Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, but these do not form part of the official name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Archduke</span> Title of nobility in the Holy Roman Empire

Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), which was below that of Emperor, and roughly equal to King, Prince-Archbishop, Grand prince and Grand Duke, but above that of a Sovereign Prince and Duke.

A double-barrelled name is a type of compound surname, typically featuring two words, often joined by a hyphen. Notable people with double-barrelled names include Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, Sacha Baron Cohen and JuJu Smith-Schuster.

The term von ( ) is used in German language surnames either as a nobiliary particle indicating a noble patrilineality, or as a simple preposition used by commoners that means of or from.

Traditional Vietnamese personal names generally consist of three parts, used in Eastern name order.

Hungarian names include surnames and given names. Some people have more than one given name, but only one is normally used. In the Hungarian language, whether written or spoken, names are invariably given in the "Eastern name order", with the family name followed by the given name. Hungarian is one of the few national languages in Europe to use the Eastern name order, like Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Khmer and some Basque nationalists.

French names typically consist of one or multiple given names, and a surname. Usually one given name and the surname are used in a person's daily life, with the other given names used mainly in official documents. Middle names, in the English sense, do not exist. Initials are not used to represent second or further given names.

The German nobility and royalty were status groups of the medieval society in Central Europe, which enjoyed certain privileges relative to other people under the laws and customs in the German-speaking area, until the beginning of the 20th century. Historically, German entities that recognized or conferred nobility included the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), the German Confederation (1814–1866) and the German Empire (1871–1918). Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in the German Empire had a policy of expanding his political base by ennobling nouveau riche industrialists and businessmen who had no noble ancestors. The nobility flourished during the dramatic industrialization and urbanization of Germany after 1850. Landowners modernized their estates, and oriented their business to an international market. Many younger sons were positioned in the rapidly growing national and regional civil service bureaucracies, as well as in the officer corps of the military. They acquired not only the technical skills but the necessary education in high prestige German universities that facilitated their success. Many became political leaders of new reform organizations such as agrarian leagues, and pressure groups. The Roman Catholic nobility played a major role in forming the new Centre Party in resistance to Bismarck's anti-Catholic Kulturkampf, while Protestant nobles were similarly active in the Conservative Party.

<i>van</i> (Dutch) Preposition used in Dutch surnames

Van is a very common prefix in Dutch language surnames, where it is known as a tussenvoegsel. In those cases it nearly always refers to a certain, often quite distant, ancestor's place of origin or residence; for example, Ludwig van Beethoven "from Beethoven" and Rembrandt van Rijn "from the Rhine". Van is also a preposition in the Dutch and Afrikaans languages, meaning "of" or "from" depending on the context.

A Portuguese name or Lusophone name – a personal name in the Portuguese language – is typically composed of one or two personal names, the mother's family surname and the father's family surname. For practicality, usually only the last surname is used in formal greetings.

Dutch names consist of one or more given names and a surname. The given name is usually gender-specific.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black Dutch (genealogy)</span> Polyphyletic ethnonym in the United States

Black Dutch is a term with several different meanings in United States dialect and slang. It generally refers to racial, ethnic or cultural roots. Its meaning varies and such differences are contingent upon time and place. Several varied groups of multiracial people have sometimes been referred to as or identified as Black Dutch, most often as a reference to their ancestors.

Thai names follow the Western European pattern of a given name followed by a family name. This differs from the family-name-first patterns of Cambodian, Vietnamese, and other East Asian countries. Thai names are diverse and often long. The diversity of family names is due to the fact that Thai surnames are a recent introduction and are required to be unique to a family. Additionally, while given names are used for official purposes and record-keeping, most Thais are also given a nickname at birth which they use in their daily life, including at school and in the workplace. In many social situations, the nickname takes precedence over the real name.

<i>Flodder</i> 1986 film by Dick Maas

Flodder is a 1986 Dutch comedy film written and directed by Dick Maas, and distributed by First Floor Features. It is the first film in the Flodder franchise and is followed by two more films and a spin-off series. The film follows an anti-social, dysfunctional family who move to an affluent, upper-class neighbourhood as part of a social experiment which results in mayhem as the Flodder family refuses to adapt.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bernard Tokkie</span> Belgian opera singer

Bernard Tokkie was a Flemish opera singer of Jewish origin.


  1. 1 2 The family no one wanted, Expatica 6 August 2004 (archived)
  2. (in Dutch) Tokkies willen niet in woordenboek, AT5, 22 April 2009