|Dudu Jianzhou Left Guard|
|Chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens|
Tolo (Manchu :ᡨᠣᠯᠣ, Möllendorff : tolo; died 1506) was an ancestor to the Qing dynasty. He was the eldest son of Cungšan, Nurhaci's grand uncle. His family name is Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅); his name was translated as Tole (脫羅) and Tolv (土老).
In the years of Chenghua (成化) after Cungšan died and a siege with the Three Guards of Jianzhou (建州) and Ming army, the Ming economy collapsed. In the Ming dynasty, Tolo commanded the Left Guard of Jianzhou. Tolo helped recover the economy, expanding trade with the Nüzhen (女真) at the borders, and further developing agricultural production. For his contributions, the Ming dynasty promoted him to Dudu Jianzhou Left Guard.
Tolo died in 1506. His son Toyuebeo succeeded his father.
The Manchu are an East Asian ethnic group native to northeastern China (Manchuria). They are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. The Later Jin (1616–1636) and Qing (1636–1912) dynasties of China were established and ruled by the Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in northern China.
Jurchen is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian Tungusic-speaking peoples, descended from the Donghu people. They lived in the northeast of China, later known as Manchuria, before the 18th century. The Jurchens were renamed Manchus in 1635 by Hong Taiji. Different Jurchen groups lived as hunter-gatherers, pastoralist semi-nomads, or sedentary agriculturists. Generally lacking a central authority, and having little communication with each other, many Jurchen groups fell under the influence of neighbouring dynasties, their chiefs paying tribute and holding nominal posts as effectively hereditary commanders of border guards.
The House of Aisin-Gioro was a Manchu clan that ruled the Later Jin dynasty (1616–1636), the Qing dynasty (1636–1912), and Manchukuo (1932–1945) in the history of China. Under the Ming dynasty, members of the Aisin Gioro clan served as chiefs of the Jianzhou Jurchens, one of the three major Jurchen tribes at this time. Qing bannermen passed through the gates of the Great Wall in 1644, conquered the short-lived Shun dynasty and the Southern Ming dynasty. The Qing dynasty later expanded into other adjacent regions, including Xinjiang, Tibet, Outer Mongolia, and Taiwan, gaining total control of China. The dynasty reached its zenith during the High Qing era and under the Qianlong Emperor, who reigned from 1735 to 1796. This reign was followed by a century of gradual decline.
The Seven Grievances was a manifesto announced by Nurhaci, khan of the Later Jin, on the thirteenth day of the fourth lunar month in the third year of the Tianming era of his reign; 7 May 1618. It effectively declared war against the Ming dynasty.
The Jianzhou Jurchens were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty. Although the geographic location of the Jianzhou Jurchens changed throughout history, during the 14th century they were located south of the Wild Jurchens and the Haixi Jurchens, and inhabited modern-day Liaoning and Jilin provinces in China. The Jianzhou Jurchens were known to possess an abundant supply of natural resources. They also possessed industrial secrets, particularly in processing ginseng and the dyeing of cloth. They were powerful due to their proximity to Ming trading towns such as Fushun, Kaiyuan, and Tieling in Liaodong, and to Manpojin camp near Korea.
Taksi or posthumously titled as Emperor Xuan was a Jurchen chieftain and father of Nurhaci, founder of the Later Jin dynasty, and the fourth son of Giocangga. A member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, he was killed in an attack on Gure by a rival Jurchen chieftain Nikan Wailan in 1583.
Fuman was Chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens and an ancestor of the future Qing dynasty emperors. His father was Sibeoci Fiyanggū. His family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅).
Sibeoci Fiyanggū, also called Shi Baoqi (石报奇), was Chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens. He held the position of Jianzhou Left Guard (建州左衛) from 1481 to 1522. After the Qing dynasty was established, he was officially honored with the posthumous name Emperor Zheng (正皇帝).
Cungšan was a chieftain of the Jurchen Jianzhou Left Guard. Cungšan was the great-great-great grandfather of Nurhaci, the founder of the Later Jin dynasty of China. His posthumous name was Emperor Chun. His father was Mengtemu.
Möngke Temür or Dudu Mengtemu (1370–1433) was a Jurchen chieftain of the Odoli tribe, one of the three tribes of the lower Sunggari river valley in Manchuria. In the 1380s the tribe migrated southward towards the lower valley of the Tumen River and settled in Womuho.
Nara is a clan name shared by a number of royal Manchu clans. The four tribes of the Hūlun confederation (扈倫四部) – Hada, Ula, Hoifa and Yehe – were all ruled by clans bearing this name.
The Haixi Jurchens were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming dynasty. They inhabited an area that consists of parts of modern-day Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia in China.
The Wild Jurchens or Haidong Jurchens were a group of the Jurchens as identified by the Ming Dynasty. They were the northernmost group of the Jurchen people. In the 14th century, they inhabited the northernmost part of Manchuria from the western side of the Greater Khingan mountains to the Ussuri River and the lower Amur River bordered by the Tatar Strait and the Sea of Japan.
Nurhaci, also known by his temple name as the Emperor Taizu of Qing, was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. A member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, he reigned as the founding khan of the Later Jin dynasty of China from 1616 to 1626.
Šurhaci, was a Jurchen leader, a member of the Aisin Gioro clan, he was a younger brother of Nurhaci, the founder of the Later Jin dynasty, the predecessor of the Qing dynasty. Under the Ming dynasty government, he held the title of local chieftain (都指揮) in the Jianzhou district, and maintained relations with the Ming authorities up to the beginning of 1607. In that year, he joined Nurhaci in the campaign against Bujantai and the Ula tribe, receiving the title of darhan baturu. However, as a result of disagreements with his brother over the conquest of the Hoifa and the killing of Hoifa's beile Baindari in 1607, he was put to death four years later at Nurhaci's order and buried in Dongjingling Township, Liaoyang. In 1653, he was posthumously given the rank of qinwang under the posthumous title Prince Zhuang of the First Rank.
Manchuria under Ming rule refers to the domination of the Ming dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria. The Ming rule of Manchuria began with the defeat of Mongols in the its conquest of Manchuria in the late 1380s after the fall of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty, and reached its peak in the early 15th century with the establishment of the Nurgan Regional Military Commission, but the Ming power waned considerably in Manchuria after that. Starting in the 1580s, the Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain Nurhaci began to take control of most of Manchuria over the next several decades, and in 1616 he established the Later Jin. The Qing dynasty established by his son Hong Taiji would eventually conquer the Ming and take control of Southern China.
The Later Jin, officially known as Jin or the Great Jin, was a royal dynasty of China in Manchuria and the precursor to the Qing dynasty. Established in 1616 by the Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain Nurhaci upon his reunification of the Jurchen tribes, its name was derived from the earlier Jin dynasty founded by the Wanyan clan which had ruled northern China in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Toimo(Manchu: ᡨᠣᡳᠮᠣ, Möllendorff: toimo;?–?)The ancestors of the Qing Dynasty.He is the second son of Cungšan, Nurhaci's great great great grand uncle. His family name is Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅).
Cuyan(Manchu: ᠴᡠᠶᠠᠨ, Möllendorff: cuyan;?–?)The leader of Jianzhou Nüzhen(建州女真) in the Ming Dynasty. His family name is Aisin Gioro(愛新覺羅), his name was translated as Cheuk Yan(綽顏). He was born in Hetuala(赫圖阿拉).Nurhaci's fifth generation grand uncle.
The Jurchen unification was a series of events in the late 16th and early 17th centuries that led to the unification of the Jurchen tribes under Nurhaci, a Jianzhou Jurchen leader who had an antagonistic relationship with the Ming dynasty due to their involvement in events early on in his life that led to the death of his father and grandfather. From 1583 to the early 1600s, Nurhaci led a series of military and influence campaigns that led to the unification of the majority of Jurchen tribes. In 1616, Nurhaci established the Later Jin dynasty and ruled as its founding khan.