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There are three isomers of toluidine, which are organic compounds. These isomers are o-toluidine, m-toluidine, and p-toluidine, with the prefixed letter abbreviating, respectively, ortho; meta; and para. All three are aryl amines whose chemical structures are similar to aniline except that a methyl group is substituted onto the benzene ring. The difference between these three isomers is the position where the methyl group (–CH3) is bonded to the ring relative to the amino functional group (–NH2); see illustration of the chemical structures below. [1]


Toluidine isomers
Methyl positionorthometapara
Common name o-toluidine m-toluidinep-toluidine
Other nameso-methylanilinem-methylanilinep-methylaniline
Chemical name 2-methylaniline3-methylaniline4-methylaniline
Chemical formula C7H9N
Molecular mass 107.17 g/mol
Glass transition temperature 189 K [2] 187 K [3] Glass not formed [2]
Melting point −23 °C−30 °C43 °C
Boiling point 199–200 °C203–204 °C200 °C
Density 1.00 g/cm30.98 g/cm31.05 g/cm3
Magnetic susceptibility76.0 × 10−6 cm3/mol74.6 × 10−6 cm3/mol72.1 × 10−6 cm3/mol
CAS number [95-53-4][108-44-1][106-49-0]
SMILES Cc1ccccc1NCc1cccc(N)c1Cc1ccc(N)cc1
O-Toluidin.svg M-Toluidin.svg P-Toluidin.svg
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The chemical properties of the toluidines are quite similar to those of aniline, and toluidines have properties in common with other aromatic amines. Due to the amino group bonded to the aromatic ring, the toluidines are weakly basic. The toluidines are poorly soluble in pure water but dissolve well in acidic water due to formation of ammonium salts, as usual for organic amines. ortho- and meta-toluidines are viscous liquids, but para-toluidine is a flaky solid. This difference is related to the fact that the p-toluidine molecules are more symmetrical. p-Toluidine can be obtained from reduction of p-nitrotoluene. p-Toluidine reacts with formaldehyde to form Tröger's base.

Uses and occurrence

The ortho isomer is produced on the largest scale. Its primary application is as a precursor to the pesticides metolachlor and acetochlor. [1] The other toluidine isomers are used in the production of dyes. They are a component of accelerators for cyanoacrylate glues.

In some patients o-toluidine is a metabolite of prilocaine, which may cause methemoglobinemia. This is then treated with methylene blue.

Related Research Articles

Aromatic compounds are those chemical compounds that contain one or more rings with pi electrons delocalized all the way around them. In contrast to compounds that exhibit aromaticity, aliphatic compounds lack this delocalization. The term "aromatic" was assigned before the physical mechanism determining aromaticity was discovered, and referred simply to the fact that many such compounds have a sweet or pleasant odour; however, not all aromatic compounds have a sweet odour, and not all compounds with a sweet odour are aromatic. Aromatic hydrocarbons, or arenes, are aromatic organic compounds containing solely carbon and hydrogen atoms. The configuration of six carbon atoms in aromatic compounds is called a "benzene ring", after the simple aromatic compound benzene, or a phenyl group when part of a larger compound.

In organic chemistry, amines (, UK also ) are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines). Important amines include amino acids, biogenic amines, trimethylamine, and aniline; see Category:Amines for a list of amines. Inorganic derivatives of ammonia are also called amines, such as monochloramine (NClH2).

Phenyl group

In organic chemistry, the phenyl group, or phenyl ring, is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5. Phenyl groups are closely related to benzene and can be viewed as a benzene ring, minus a hydrogen, which may be replaced by some other element or compound to serve as a functional group. Phenyl groups have six carbon atoms bonded together in a hexagonal planar ring, five of which are bonded to individual hydrogen atoms, with the remaining carbon bonded to a substituent. Phenyl groups are commonplace in organic chemistry. Although often depicted with alternating double and single bonds, phenyl groups are chemically aromatic and have equal bond lengths between carbon atoms in the ring.

Cresols are organic compounds which are methylphenols. They are a widely occurring natural and manufactured group of aromatic organic compounds, which are categorized as phenols. Depending on the temperature, cresols can be solid or liquid because they have melting points not far from room temperature. Like other types of phenols, they are slowly oxidized by long exposure to air, and the impurities often give samples of cresols a yellowish to brownish red tint. Cresols have an odor characteristic to that of other simple phenols, reminiscent to some of a "coal tar" smell. The name cresol reflects their structure, being phenols, and their traditional source, creosote.

Aniline Chemical compound

Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the simplest aromatic amine. It is an industrially significant commodity chemical, as well as a versatile starting material for fine chemical synthesis. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane, dyes, and other industrial chemicals. Like most volatile amines, it has the odor of rotten fish. It ignites readily, burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds.


Mauveine, also known as aniline purple and Perkin's mauve, was one of the first synthetic dyes. It was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856 while he was attempting to create a cure for malaria. It is also among the first chemical dyes to have been mass-produced.

In organic chemistry, an aryl halide is an aromatic compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms, directly bonded to an aromatic ring are replaced by a halide. The haloarene are different from haloalkanes because they exhibit many differences in methods of preparation and properties. The most important members are the aryl chlorides, but the class of compounds is so broad that many derivatives enjoy niche applications.

In organic chemistry, nitration is a general class of chemical processes for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic compound. The term also is applied incorrectly to the different process of forming nitrate esters between alcohols and nitric acid. The difference between the resulting molecular structures of nitro compounds and nitrates is that the nitrogen atom in nitro compounds is directly bonded to a non-oxygen atom, whereas in nitrate esters, the nitrogen is bonded to an oxygen atom that in turn usually is bonded to a carbon atom.

In an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, existing substituent groups on the aromatic ring influence the overall reaction rate or have a directing effect on positional isomer of the products that are formed. An electron donating group (EDG) or electron releasing group is an atom or functional group that donates some of its electron density into a conjugated π system via resonance (mesomerism) or inductive effects —called +M or +I effects, respectively—thus making the π system more nucleophilic. As a result of these electronic effects, an aromatic ring to which such a group is attached is more likely to participate in electrophilic substitution reaction. EDGs are therefore often known as activating groups, though steric effects can interfere with the reaction.

Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.

Nucleophilic aromatic substitution

A nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a good leaving group, such as a halide, on an aromatic ring. There are 6 nucleophilic substitution mechanisms encountered with aromatic systems:

Povarov reaction

The Povarov reaction is an organic reaction described as a formal cycloaddition between an aromatic imine and an alkene. The imine in this organic reaction is a condensation reaction product from an aniline type compound and a benzaldehyde type compound. The alkene must be electron rich which means that functional groups attached to the alkene must be able to donate electrons. Such alkenes are enol ethers and enamines. The reaction product in the original Povarov reaction is a quinoline. Because the reactions can be carried out with the three components premixed in one reactor it is an example of a multi-component reaction.


o-Xylene (ortho-xylene) is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the formula C6H4(CH3)2. with two methyl substituents bonded to adjacent carbon atoms of a benzene ring (the ortho configuration). It is a constitutional isomer of m-xylene and p-xylene, the mixture being called xylene or xylenes. o-Xylene is a colorless slightly oily flammable liquid.

p-Cymene is a naturally occurring aromatic organic compound. It is classified as an alkylbenzene related to a monoterpene. Its structure consists of a benzene ring para-substituted with a methyl group and an isopropyl group. p-Cymene is insoluble in water, but miscible with organic solvents.

<i>o</i>-Toluidine Aryl amine

o-Toluidine (ortho-toluidine) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3C6H4NH2. It is the most important of the three isomeric toluidines. It is a colorless liquid although commercial samples are often yellowish. It is a precursor to the herbicides metolachlor and acetochlor.

Birch reduction

The Birch reduction is an organic reaction that is used to convert arenes to cyclohexadienes. The reaction is named after the Australian chemist Arthur Birch. In this organic reduction of aromatic rings in liquid ammonia with sodium, lithium, or potassium and an alcohol, such as ethanol and tert-butanol. This reaction is unlike catalytic hydrogenation, which usually reduces the aromatic ring all the way to a cyclohexane.

Metal-catalyzed C–H borylation reactions are transition metal catalyzed organic reactions that produce an organoboron compound through functionalization of aliphatic and aromatic C–H bonds and are therefore useful reactions for carbon–hydrogen bond activation. Metal-catalyzed C–H borylation reactions utilize transition metals to directly convert a C–H bond into a C–B bond. This route can be advantageous compared to traditional borylation reactions by making use of cheap and abundant hydrocarbon starting material, limiting prefunctionalized organic compounds, reducing toxic byproducts, and streamlining the synthesis of biologically important molecules. Boronic acids, and boronic esters are common boryl groups incorporated into organic molecules through borylation reactions. Boronic acids are trivalent boron-containing organic compounds that possess one alkyl substituent and two hydroxyl groups. Similarly, boronic esters possess one alkyl substituent and two ester groups. Boronic acids and esters are classified depending on the type of carbon group (R) directly bonded to boron, for example alkyl-, alkenyl-, alkynyl-, and aryl-boronic esters. The most common type of starting materials that incorporate boronic esters into organic compounds for transition metal catalyzed borylation reactions have the general formula (RO)2B-B(OR)2. For example, bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2Pin2), and bis(catecholato)diborane (B2Cat2) are common boron sources of this general formula.

<i>o</i>-Cymene Organic compound

o-Cymene is an organic compound classified as an aromatic hydrocarbon. Its structure consists of a benzene ring ortho-substituted with a methyl group and an isopropyl group. It is a flammable colorless liquid which is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

<i>m</i>-Cymene Organic compound

m-Cymene is an organic compound classified as an aromatic hydrocarbon. Its structure consists of a benzene ring meta-substituted with a methyl group and an isopropyl group. It is a flammable colorless liquid which is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

Ortho effect refers mainly to the set of steric effects and some bonding interactions along with polar effects caused by the various substituents which are in a given molecule altering its chemical properties and physical properties. In a general sense the ortho effect is associated with substituted benzene compounds.


  1. 1 2 Bowers, Joseph S. "Toluidines". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry . Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a27_159.
  2. 1 2 Pratesi, G.; Bartolini, P.; Senatra, D.; Ricci, M.; Righini, R.; Barocchi, F.; Torre, R. (2003). "Experimental studies of the ortho-toluidine glass transition". Physical Review E. 67 (2). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.67.021505.
  3. Alba-Simionesco, C.; Fan, J.; Angell, C. A. (1999). "Thermodynamic aspects of the glass transition phenomenon. II. Molecular liquids with variable interactions". The Journal of Chemical Physics. 110 (11): 5262. doi:10.1063/1.478800.