Tom Ginsburg (born February 22, 1967) is the Leo Spitz Distinguished Service Professor of International Law and Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is primarily known as a scholar of international and comparative law, with a focus on constitutions and a regional specialty of East Asia.
Ginsburg was born in Berkeley, California on February 22, 1967. He holds a B.A. in Asian Studies, a J.D., and a Ph.D in Jurisprudence and Social Policy from the University of California at Berkeley.He was a professor at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign College of Law from 2000 until 2008, when he joined the law faculty at Chicago.
Before entering law teaching at the University of Illinois in 2000, he served as a legal advisor to the Iran-US Claims Tribunal in the Hague, Netherlands as well as consulting for numerous international development agencies and foreign governments.
He has been a visiting professor at the University of Tokyo, Kyushu University, Seoul National University, the Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Trento.
In addition to seven books, he has written a large number of journal and law review articles. With Zachary Elkins, he founded the Comparative Constitutions Project, which records the content of a complete set of national constitutions since 1789 and produces the website Constitute in partnership with Google Ideas.
Ginsburg is one of the most cited scholars of international law in the United States.
A constitution is the aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organization or other type of entity, and commonly determines how that entity is to be governed.
The University of Chicago Law School is the law school of the University of Chicago, a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It employs more than 180 full-time and part-time faculty and hosts more than 600 students in its Juris Doctor program, while also offering the Master of Laws, Master of Studies in Law and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees in law. The law school has the third highest percentage of recent graduates clerking for federal judges after Stanford Law School and Yale Law School.
Douglas Howard Ginsburg is an American lawyer, jurist, and academic who serves as a senior judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. He was appointed to that court in October 1986 by President Ronald Reagan, and served as its chief judge from 2001 until 2008. In October 1987, Reagan announced his intention to nominate Ginsburg as an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. But Ginsburg withdrew his name from consideration before being formally nominated, after news reports that he had smoked marijuana in the past created controversy.
Judicial activism is a judicial philosophy holding that the courts can and should go beyond the applicable law to consider broader societal implications of its decisions. It is sometimes used as an antonym of judicial restraint. The term usually implies that judges make rulings based on their own views rather than on precedent. The definition of judicial activism and the specific decisions that are activist are controversial political issues. The question of judicial activism is closely related to judicial interpretation, statutory interpretation, and separation of powers.
Stuart v. Laird, 5 U.S. 299 (1803), was a case decided by United States Supreme Court notably a week after its famous decision in Marbury v. Madison.
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Mortimer Newlin Stead Sellers is Regents Professor of the University System of Maryland, Elkins Professor of the University System of Maryland, Professor of Law at the University of Baltimore School of Law, and past President of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy (IVR). His work primarily concerns the philosophy of law, legal theory, and global justice with an emphasis on international law, constitutional law, comparative law and legal history. He has been a Regents Professor of the University System of Maryland since 2003, the highest honor in the UM System. Sellers is best known for his books on republican legal and political philosophy, global justice, international law, and universal human rights. He has been Director of the University of Baltimore Center for International and Comparative Law since 1994.
Larry D. Kramer is an American legal scholar and nonprofit executive. He is the current president of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and the former dean of Stanford Law School (2004–2012). He is a scholar of both constitutional law and civil procedure.
Thomas J. Biersteker is an American political scientist and a notable constructivism scholar. He became the first Curt Gasteyger Professor of International Security at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID) in Geneva, Switzerland in 2007, where he is also a member of the Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding. He is an active member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Social Science Research Council and is on the Editorial Board of Stability: International Journal of Security and Development. His more recent work included advising the United Nations’ Secretariat and the governments of Switzerland, Sweden and Germany on the design of targeted sanctions. In 2020, he was awarded the University of Chicago Professional Achievement Award.
The United States Constitution has had influence internationally on later constitutions and legal thinking. Its influence appears in similarities of phrasing and borrowed passages in other constitutions, as well as in the principles of the rule of law, separation of powers and recognition of individual rights. The American experience of constitutional amendment and judicial review motivated constitutionalists at times when they were considering the possibilities for their nation's future. Examples include Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, his contemporary and ally Benito Juárez of Mexico, the second generation of 19th-century constitutional nationalists José Rizal of the Philippines, and Sun Yat-sen of China, and the framers of the Australian constitution. However, democratizing countries often chose more centralized British or French models of government, particularly the British Westminster system.
Christopher Ludwig Eisgruber is an American academic and legal scholar who is serving as the 20th President of Princeton University, where he is also the Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor of Public Affairs in the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs and the University Center for Human Values. He is also an expert on constitutional law, with an emphasis on law & religion and federal judicial appointments.
Eduardo M. Peñalver is an American law professor who is the president of Seattle University. From 2014 until 2021, Peñalver was the 16th dean of Cornell Law School.
Daniel Y. Abebe is an American lawyer and law professor. Abebe is Harold J. and Marion F. Green Professor of Law and Deputy Dean of the University of Chicago Law School and a Vice Provost of the University of Chicago. His research focuses on foreign relations law and public international law.
Susan Carol Stokes is an American political scientist and the Tiffany and Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor in the Political Science department of the University of Chicago, and the faculty director of the Chicago Center on Democracy. Her academic focus is on Latin American politics, comparative politics, and how democracies function in developing countries. Stokes is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2022.
David A. Strauss is an American legal scholar who is currently the Gerald Ratner Distinguished Service Professor of Law at the University of Chicago Law School. He is a constitutional law scholar and the author of The Living Constitution (2010), an influential work on the interpretation of the Constitution of the United States and judicial decision-making. He has argued 19 cases before the Supreme Court of the United States.
Aziz Z. Huq is an American legal scholar who is the Frank and Bernice J. Greenberg Professor of Law at the University of Chicago Law School. He is a leading scholar in the areas of constitutional law, federal courts, and criminal procedure. His work in constitutional law principally focuses on individual rights and liberties under the U.S. Constitution.
Chiara Cordelli is a professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Chicago. Her work focuses on the application of Kantian theory to the issues of philanthropy, privatization, and state legitimacy. Her first book, The Privatized State (2020), won the inaugural European Consortium for Political Research Political Theory Prize for best first English-language book of Political Theory.
The Comparative Constitutions Project is an academic study of the content of the world's constitutions from 1789 to 2022, with yearly updates. The project was founded by Zachary Elkins and Tom Ginsburg in 2022 when they were colleagues at the University of Illinois and fellows at the Cline Center for Advanced Social Research. The primary objective of the project is to understand the origins and consequences of constitutional choices. Most of the seed money for the project came from the Cline Center, as well as two successive grants from the National Science Foundation. James Melton, a graduate student at Illinois, joined Elkins and Ginsburg as a full collaborator before leaving academia in 2015. The project continues to be administered by Elkins and Ginsburg as a collaboration between the University of Texas and the University of Chicago, where they are based, respectively.