ToneScript is a description syntax for the characteristics of call-progress tones.
A call progress tone is a pattern of audible tones played to the caller in a telephone call, conveying the status of the call. ToneScript describes the pattern of frequency, cadence, and level of the signal. Many Internet telephony devices support configuration options for users to customize the tones, but standard patterns are provided for various telephone administrations. ToneScript is used in Sipura, Linksys and Cisco family of IP telephony products.
|Second dial tone||450@-19,550@-19;10(*/0/1+2)|
|Outside dial tone||420@-16;10(*/0/1)|
|Howler/off-hook warning tone||480@-10,620@0;10(.125/.125/1+2)|
|Special information tone SIT1||985@-16,1428@-16,1777@-16;20(.380/0/1,.380/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)|
|Special information tone SIT2||914@-16,1371@-16,1777@-16;20(.274/0/1,.274/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)|
|Special information tone SIT3||914@-16,1371@-16,1777@-16;20(.380/0/1,.380/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)|
|Special information tone SIT4||985@-16,1371@-16,1777@-16;20(.380/0/1,.274/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)|
|MWI dial tone||350@-19,440@-19;2(.1/.1/1+2);10(*/0/1+2)|
|Call forward dial tone||350@-19,440@-19;2(.2/.2/1+2);10(*/0/1+2)|
|Conference call tone||350@-19;20(.1/.1/1,.1/9.7/1)|
|Call waiting tone||440@-10;30(.3/9.7/1)|
|Second Dial Tone||450@-19,550@-19;10(*/0/1+2)|
|Outside Dial Tone||413@-19,438@-19;10(*/0/1+2)|
|Howler/Off Hook Tone||880@-5,650@-5;*(.120/0/1,.120/0/2)|
|MWI Dial Tone||413@-19,438@-19;10(.100/.040/1+2)|
|Cfwd Dial Tone||420@-19;10(*/0/1)|
|DND Dial Tone||420@-19;10(*/0/1)|
|Call Waiting Tone||425@-25;*(.2/.2/1,.2/4/1)|
|Dial tone (ETSI standard)||425@-17;60(*/0/1)|
|Second dial tone||335@-19,425@-19;45(*/0/1+2)|
|Busy tone (ETSI standard)||425@-19; 30(0.5/0.5/1)|
|Reorder tone (ETSI standard)||425@-19; 30(.2/.2/1)|
|Ringback tone (same as UK, NZ etc.)||400@-19,450@-19;*(.4/.2/1+2,.4/.2/1+2,2/0/0)|
|Special information tone SIT (ETSI standard)||950@-16,1400@-16,1800@-16;20(.330/0/1,.330/0/2,.330/0/3,0/1/0)|
|MWI dial tone||425@-19;2(.1/.1/1);58(*/0/1)|
|Call forward dial tone||400@-16,432@-18;30(0.4/0/1,0.4/0/2)|
|Call waiting tone||425@-19;30(.3/9.7/1)|
|Confirm tone / routing tone||425@-19;1.5(0.06/0.06/1);|
(ETSI standard) is indicated where tones are in compliance with European Telecommunications Standards Institute recommendations.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) which is equal to one event per second. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period, T—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals (sound), radio waves, and light.
Frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. The technology is used in telecommunications, radio broadcasting, signal processing, and computing.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation. That means the logarithm of a given number x is the exponent to which another fixed number, the base b, must be raised, to produce that number x. In the simplest case, the logarithm counts the number of occurrences of the same factor in repeated multiplication; e.g., since 1000 = 10 × 10 × 10 = 103, the "logarithm base 10" of 1000 is 3, or log10(1000) = 3. The logarithm of x to baseb is denoted as logb(x), or without parentheses, logb x, or even without the explicit base, log x, when no confusion is possible, or when the base does not matter such as in big O notation.
In music, a note is a symbol denoting a musical sound. In English usage a note is also the sound itself.
In telecommunications, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a type of digital transmission and a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communication, used in applications such as digital television and audio broadcasting, DSL internet access, wireless networks, power line networks, and 4G/5G mobile communications.
In signal processing, phase noise is the frequency-domain representation of random fluctuations in the phase of a waveform, corresponding to time-domain deviations from perfect periodicity ("jitter"). Generally speaking, radio-frequency engineers speak of the phase noise of an oscillator, whereas digital-system engineers work with the jitter of a clock.
The sawtooth wave is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform. It is so named based on its resemblance to the teeth of a plain-toothed saw with a zero rake angle. A single sawtooth, or an intermittently triggered sawtooth, is called a ramp waveform.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies. Pitch can be determined only in sounds that have a frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise. Pitch is a major auditory attribute of musical tones, along with duration, loudness, and timbre.
In electric and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to the flow of current due to that element's inductance or capacitance. Greater reactance leads to smaller currents for the same voltage applied. Reactance is similar to electric resistance in this respect, but differs in that reactance does not lead to dissipation of electrical energy as heat. Instead, energy is stored in the reactance, and later returned to the circuit whereas a resistance continuously loses energy.
The jansky is a non-SI unit of spectral flux density, or spectral irradiance, used especially in radio astronomy. It is equivalent to 10−26 watts per square metre per hertz.
Johnson–Nyquist noise is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage. Thermal noise is present in all electrical circuits, and in sensitive electronic equipment such as radio receivers can drown out weak signals, and can be the limiting factor on sensitivity of an electrical measuring instrument. Thermal noise increases with temperature. Some sensitive electronic equipment such as radio telescope receivers are cooled to cryogenic temperatures to reduce thermal noise in their circuits. The generic, statistical physical derivation of this noise is called the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, where generalized impedance or generalized susceptibility is used to characterize the medium.
The power spectrum of a time series describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal. According to Fourier analysis, any physical signal can be decomposed into a number of discrete frequencies, or a spectrum of frequencies over a continuous range. The statistical average of a certain signal or sort of signal as analyzed in terms of its frequency content, is called its spectrum.
In electronics, ring modulation is a signal processing function, an implementation of frequency mixing, performed by creating multiple frequencies from those of the two signals, where one is typically a sine wave or another simple waveform and the other is the signal to be modulated. A ring modulator is an electronic device for ring modulation. A ring modulator may be used in music synthesizers and as an effects unit.
Intermodulation (IM) or intermodulation distortion (IMD) is the amplitude modulation of signals containing two or more different frequencies, caused by nonlinearities or time variance in a system. The intermodulation between frequency components will form additional components at frequencies that are not just at harmonic frequencies of either, like harmonic distortion, but also at the sum and difference frequencies of the original frequencies and at sums and differences of multiples of those frequencies.
A vibration in a string is a wave. Resonance causes a vibrating string to produce a sound with constant frequency, i.e. constant pitch. If the length or tension of the string is correctly adjusted, the sound produced is a musical tone. Vibrating strings are the basis of string instruments such as guitars, cellos, and pianos.
This is a list of the fundamental frequencies in hertz (cycles per second) of the keys of a modern 88-key standard or 108-key extended piano in twelve-tone equal temperament, with the 49th key, the fifth A (called A4), tuned to 440 Hz (referred to as A440). Since every octave is made of twelve steps and equals two times the frequency (for example, the fifth A is 440 Hz and the higher octave A is 880 Hz), each successive pitch is derived by multiplying (ascending) or dividing (descending) the previous by the twelfth root of two (approximately 1.059463). For example, to get the frequency a semitone up from A4 (A♯4), multiply 440 by the twelfth root of two. To go from A4 to B4 (up a whole tone, or two semitones), multiply 440 twice by the twelfth root of two (or just by the sixth root of two, approximately 1.122462). To go from A4 to C5 (which is a minor third), multiply 440 three times by the twelfth root of two, (or just by the fourth root of two, approximately 1.189207). For other tuning schemes refer to musical tuning.
In the field of solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. Torsion is expressed in either the Pascal (Pa), an SI unit for newtons per square metre, or in pounds per square inch (psi) while torque is expressed in newton metres (N·m) or foot-pound force (ft·lbf). In sections perpendicular to the torque axis, the resultant shear stress in this section is perpendicular to the radius.
The precise tone plan is a signaling specification for the public switched telephone network (PSTN) in North America. It defines the call-progress tones used for indicating the status and progress of telephone calls to subscribers and operators.
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Carrier frequency offset (CFO) is one of many non-ideal conditions that may affect in baseband receiver design. In designing a baseband receiver, we should notice not only the degradation invoked by non-ideal channel and noise, we should also regard RF and analog parts as the main consideration. Those non-idealities include sampling clock offset, IQ imbalance, power amplifier, phase noise and carrier frequency offset nonlinearity.
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