Remnants of early malting operations in 2014
|Location||11 Mort Street, Newtown, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia|
|Design period||1870s - 1890s (late 19th century)|
|Built||1899 - 1907|
|Official name: Toowoomba Maltings, Black Gully Malthouse, Darling Downs Malting Company Ltd, Paterson Redwood and Co, Queensland Brewery Co, Carlton Maltings, Northern Australia Brewers Ltd, Queensland Malting Company Ltd, Redwood's Maltings, State Wheat Board|
|Type||state heritage (built)|
|Designated||21 January 1998|
|Significant period|| 1899, 1907, (fabric)|
1899-1923,1930,1940s, c. 1951, 1973 (historical)
|Significant components||kiln, railway siding, machinery/plant/equipment - manufacturing/processing, store/s / storeroom / storehouse|
Toowoomba Maltings is a heritage-listed malthouse at 11 Mort Street, Newtown, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built from 1899 to 1907. It is also known as Black Gully Malthouse, Darling Downs Malting Company Ltd, Paterson Redwood and Co, Queensland Brewery Co, Carlton Maltings, Northern Australia Brewers Ltd, Queensland Malting Company Ltd, Redwood's Maltings, State Wheat Board, and William Jones and Son (Maltsters) Ltd. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 January 1998.
Newtown is a suburb of Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia, located directly west of the city centre. At the 2016 Australian Census, the suburb recorded a population of 9,596.
The Toowoomba Region is a local government area located in the Darling Downs part of Queensland, Australia. Established in 2008, it was preceded by several previous local government areas with histories extending back to the early 1900s and beyond.
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland. The state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 sq mi).
The Toowoomba Maltings comprises a complex of buildings erected in several stages, in 1899, 1907, and the 1960s at Black Gully, Toowoomba for the purpose of turning barley into malt.
The 1899 and 1907 buildings are remnants of what was a large floor malting operation. The first malt house was erected on the Black Gully site in 1897 for the Darling Downs Malting Company Ltd to the design of architects, J Marks and Son. It was operated by the famous New Zealand malting family, the Redwoods, who were instrumental in developing the malting industry on the Darling Downs and in encouraging Downs' farmers to grow and harvest barley for malting. Alphonso H Redwood was the managing director. The site had ready access to a water supply (Black Gully is a tributary of Gowrie Creek) and to transport (a railway siding known as Redwood's Siding was constructed to link the malthouse with the adjacent main south and west railway lines).
The second malthouse known as the big malt house was erected in c. 1899 on a site adjoining what then became known as the small malt house and was operated by Paterson Redwood and Co. Later called the Queensland Malting Company Ltd, members of the Redwood family were also associated with this company as minor shareholders, with the directors and major shareholders being Francis J Paterson (later Town Clerk of Toowoomba) and Townsville merchant, Samuel Nesbitt Allen.
Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Townsville is Australia's largest urban centre north of the Sunshine Coast, with a population of 173,815 as of the 2016 Australian census. Considered the unofficial capital of North Queensland by locals, Townsville hosts a significant number of governmental, community and major business administrative offices for the northern half of the state. It is in the dry tropics region of Queensland, adjacent to the central section of the Great Barrier Reef. The city is also a major industrial centre, home to one of the worlds largest zinc refineries, a nickel refinery and many other similar activities. The Port of Townsville is also being expanded to allow much larger cargo ships from Asia and the world's largest passenger ships to visit. It is an increasingly important port due to its proximity to Asia and major trading partners such as China.
In 1901, both malthouses were purchased by Vernon Redwood and P O'Brien with Redwood soon after purchasing the interest of O'Brien. The business was then operated under the name Redwood, by Vernon (who had been chief maltster for Perkins and Co in Toowoomba and who later served as Mayor and a Member of the Legislative Assembly) with his father and brothers. The business was purchased in 1904 by English malsters, William Jones and Son (Malsters) Ltd with Vernon Redwood as general manager (1904–13). The company, described as one of the largest malsters in the world, also imported most of the English malt coming into Australia. After federation and the imposition of duty on malt, the company needed to establish themselves in Australia, to maintain that business.
In 1906 major additions were commenced. In addition to the two malthouses, there was already on the site a brewery tower (erected c. 1898) and residential accommodation. The additions costing £6,999 were designed and supervised by Toowoomba architect Harry Marks of James Marks and Son. They comprised the erection of a new malthouse and kilns which were linked to the 1899 malthouse and the conversion of the existing brewery tower to a high water storage reservoir. The new malthouse included steeping tanks, a large polished cement germinating floor, two kilns, malt dressing rooms, and a number of pine storage bins. Elevators and a conveyor belt, which traversed the length of the building, transported the grain in its various stages. The malt storage chamber was fitted with 38 Marks patented reversible casement windows and a number of Marks's roof ventilators. Special kiln top ventilators were also designed by Marks, who was described as being gifted with inventive genius. The new complex, described as the biggest in the Commonwealth, was opened on 1 June 1907. The contractor was Montague Ivory with the plastering (including the cement germinating floor) by WJ Waldron, ironwork by the Toowoomba Foundry, and plumbing by Partridge and Co.
Toowoomba Foundry Pty Ltd is a heritage-listed former foundry at 251-267 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. It was built from c. 1910 to 1940s. It is also known as Griffiths Brothers & Company, Southern Cross Works, and Toowoomba Foundry and Railway Rolling Stock Manufacturing Company. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 7 July 2004. The northern and western portions of the site have undergone redevelopment as a Bunnings Warehouse outlet, having obtained Toowoomba Regional Council approval to demolish some of the heritage-listed structures on the site. Construction commenced in late 2016, with the store opening in late 2017.
In 1923, the land was acquired by the Crown and was used by the State Wheat Board for the storage of wheat until 1930, when the newly formed Barley Board, established to deal with surplus crops, reopened the malthouse which was leased to Queensland Brewery Co who agreed to malt all barley of malting quality delivered by the Barley Board. During World War II, malting operations ceased and the site was occupied by the defence forces. In 1959 the complex was purchased by the Northern Australian Brewers Ltd, who had leased the complex from 1951. A $1 million modernisation and expansion program was commenced in 1968. This included the erection of new buildings to house automatic malting technology. About this time the 1897 malthouse and part of the 1899 building were demolished.
In 1973, the Maltings were transferred to Carlton United Brewers (NQ) Ltd. In 1987, the portion of land formerly containing the water tower and other associated buildings was sold. The remaining portion containing the floor maltings and the automated maltings has been transferred a number of times since. The floor maltings are no longer in use, however automated malting is still carried out on the site.
Bounded on the north east by Mort Street and the Western railway line and by Black Gully on the north west, the Maltings complex is located in a mixed residential and industrial area of Toowoomba. A railway siding runs between the buildings and the gully.
A rectilinear block of connected buildings consisting of two stone kilns, a malt dressing area, two brick kilns and a brick shed are remnants of earlier malting operations on the site. The present malting plant is housed in large sheds on the eastern and southern sides of the older buildings.
The two 1899 painted bluestone kilns, the oldest surviving buildings, are of coursed rubble construction. Each kiln has two levels with the lower level partly below ground. In the centre of each is a furnace which provided the heat for the drying process which took place on the upper level. A radial timber framed floor separates the two levels. The stone kilns have hipped corrugated iron roofs with large metal clad ventilators located at the peaks.
A gable roofed brick malt-dressing area separates the stone kilns from two slightly larger kilns. Machinery for processing grain (cleaning, moving, grading) is located on timber platforms at different levels connected by timber stairs. Sky lights over this area have rolled iron roofs. Rooms for the collection of dust are located on the upper level.
The two larger 1907 kilns are of similar design to the stone kilns but constructed of brick with brick arches on the furnace level and steel framed floors of perforated cast-iron tiles. Ventilators located at the peak of steep hip roofs have overhanging flat metal tops.
A large brick shed dominated by a corrugated iron gable roof extends to the south west of the kilns. The ground floor of the shed has a polished concrete germinating floor ventilated by timber shuttered windows. Round cast-iron columns in a grid of 14x6 bays support the timber floor and floor framing above.
On the first floor level which is built inside the roof space of the shed are timber framed malt storage bins lined with pine boards on a malthoid paper backing. A central corridor running north east to south west along the length of the shed allows access to the storage bins. On this level in the centre of the north west elevation is a dormered loading bay which opens via double timber doors onto the railway siding.
Above the central corridor under the ridge of the shed roof is a walkway and conveyor belt. The conveyor belt is connected via metal chutes with the storage bins. At the south west end of this reversible conveyor belt, opening onto the germinating floor below, are two large steeping tanks supported on steel girders. Grain elevators are located at the north east end of the conveyor belt in the malt dressing area. The shed roof has numerous skylights and Marks's ventilators.
A new skillion roofed, steel framed shed is attached to the north western side of the old buildings to provide cover for loading operations. Original tools and machinery remain in the buildings.
Toowoomba Maltings was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 January 1998 having satisfied the following criteria.
The place is important in demonstrating the evolution or pattern of Queensland's history.
Toowoomba Maltings is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history, in particular the development of the malting industry on the Darling Downs and the use of floor maltings.
The place demonstrates rare, uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland's cultural heritage.
As a collection of buildings and equipment associated with the (superseded) technology of floor maltings, it demonstrates a rare aspect of Queensland's cultural heritage.
The place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places.
As a collection of buildings and equipment associated with the (superseded) technology of floor maltings, it is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of floor maltings.
The place is important because of its aesthetic significance.
It is important in exhibiting a range of aesthetic characteristics valued by the community, in particular as an example of a functional industrial aesthetic.
The place is important in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period.
The place is important in demonstrating a high degree of technical achievement in an early 20th century floor malting complex.
The place has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in Queensland's history.
It has a special association with the life and work of Toowoomba architects James Marks and Son, in particular Harry Marks, and is a good example of their industrial work.
An oast, oast house or hop kiln is a building designed for kilning (drying) hops as part of the brewing process. They can be found in most hop-growing areas and are often good examples of vernacular architecture. Many redundant oasts have been converted into houses. The names oast and oast house are used interchangeably in Kent and Sussex. In Surrey, Hampshire, Herefordshire and Worcestershire they are always called hop kilns.
Canning Downs was the first residential establishment built by a white person on the Darling Downs in Queensland, Australia. It is located a short drive from the town of Warwick and originally extended south east to Killarney and the McPherson Range. The area was first named after the British statesman George Canning by Allan Cunningham.
A malt house, or maltings, is a building where cereal grain is converted into malt by soaking it in water, allowing it to sprout and then drying it to stop further growth. The malt is used in brewing beer, whisky and in certain foods. The traditional malt house was largely phased out during the twentieth century in favour of more mechanised production. Many malt houses have been converted to other uses, such as Snape Maltings which is now a concert hall.
Toowoomba railway station is a heritage-listed railway station on the Western line at Russell Street, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It serves the city of Toowoomba, which is the junction for the Western, Main and Southern lines.The station has one platform with a passing loop, opening in 1867. It was designed by FDG Stanley and built in 1873 by R. Godsall. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Alexandra Building is a heritage-listed commercial building at 451-455 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Toowoomba architect Henry James (Harry) Marks and built in 1902 by James Renwick. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 16 October 2008.
Defiance Flour Mill is a heritage-listed mill at 269-291 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Toowoomba architect William Hodgen and built in 1911 by WT Smith. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 26 February 2002.
The Exchange Building is a heritage-listed commercial building at 245-253 Margaret Street, Toowoomba City, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It consists of two storeys, with a row of four shops on the first floor with office space above. It was built by 1905, and designed by Toowoomba architect Harry Marks. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 27 October 2000, and is considered significant for its aesthetic contribution to the streetscape of Margaret Street, for its status as surviving evidence of the early development of the commercial centre of Toowoomba, and for its association with Marks. As of February 2013, it was tenanted by a number of shops facing Margaret Street, with offices on the second floor.
Gladstone House and Cottage is a heritage-listed detached house at 1B-3 Gladstone Street, Newtown, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Harry Marks for himself and built c. 1908. It is also known as St Rest. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 13 January 1995.
Glen Alpine is a heritage-listed villa at 32-36 East Street, Redwood, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Toowoomba architect Harry Marks and built c. 1918. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 11 June 1993.
Pigott's Building is a heritage-listed commercial building and former department store at 381-391 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Toowoomba firm James Marks and Son, and built in 1910 as the principal store of the Pigott & Co. department store chain, replacing an earlier 1902 store on the site that had burned down in 1909. The store was extended in 1914, 1935, 1956, and again in the 1960s.
St James Parish Hall is a heritage-listed church hall at 112 Russell Street, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Henry James (Harry) Marks and built in 1912. It is also known as Taylor Memorial Institute. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 28 March 1995.
St Lukes Church Hall is a heritage-listed church hall of St Luke's Anglican Church at 152 Herries Street, Toowoomba City, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Henry James (Harry) Marks and built from 1910 to 1911 by H. Andrews. It is also known as St Lukes School & Parish Hall. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
St Patrick's Cathedral is a heritage-listed Roman Catholic cathedral on James Street, South Toowoomba, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Toowoomba architect James Marks and was built from 1883 to 1935. It is also known as St Patrick's Church School. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Toowoomba Hospital is a heritage-listed hospital at Pechey Street, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built from c. 1880 to c. 1927. It is also known as Toowoomba Base Hospital. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 28 July 2000.
Vacy Hall is a heritage-listed villa at 135 Russell Street, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built c. 1899. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
The White Horse Hotel is a heritage-listed former hotel at 456 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. A hotel known as the White Horse Hotel is known to have existed since 1866. The current two-storey building was built in stages, with much of the current fabric dating from renovations c. 1912, which included a new facade and the remodelling of both wings. The verandah overlooking Ruthven Street had been removed by 1978, and an additional room was built about this time.
The Bass Maltings in Sleaford, England are a large group of eight disused malt houses originally owned by the Bass Brewery of Burton upon Trent. Constructed between 1901 and 1907 to Herbert A. Couchman's design, the maltings are the largest group of malt houses in England; they have been designated Grade II* on the National Heritage List for England, recognising them as "particularly important ... of more than special interest."
Cairns Plywood Pty Ltd Sawmill Complex is a heritage-listed sawmill at 25 - 33 Eacham Road, Yungaburra, Tablelands Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built from 1910 to 1980s. It is also known as Cairns Plywood Limited, Eacham Sawmills, and Williamson Brothers Sawmill. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Toowoomba Grammar School buildings are a heritage-listed pair of school buildings at Toowoomba Grammar School at 24-60 Margaret Street, East Toowoomba, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. They were designed by Willoughby Powell and built from 1875 to 1940s. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Toowoomba East State School is a heritage-listed state school on the corner of Arthur and Mary Streets, East Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built from 1935 to 1936 by the Queensland Department of Public Works. It was originally known as Queen's Park State School. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 28 July 2017.